State Data Systems
Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • Fax: 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org

State Data Systems

Longitudinal student-unit databases provide the most accurate information for both policy decisions and decisions at the district and school levels. They can provide information about student growth over time that can then be linked with the teachers, programs and schools that have served those students. They also can provide fairer comparisons of schools than data systems that rely on cohort comparisons, because they ensure school performance is based only on students who have been continuously enrolled in that school. Finally, because they can match student records over time, they offer a way to follow student progress statewide and to verify the accuracy of district information – particularly about student transfers and dropouts. However, less than one-fifth of the states are even close to implementing systems that are robust enough to provide this level of information.

The following elements are important:
  • Unique student identifiers make it possible for value-added assessment systems to determine growth in individual student achievement.
  • The use of social security numbers as unique identifiers has raised significant concerns about student privacy. States that have moved ahead with the use of unique identifiers even though the use of social security numbers is prohibited by law could be tapped for model language to help provide solutions in other states.
  • Unique teacher identifiers allow integration of teacher data into school-level analysis of trends in classroom performance. This level of data can help district and building leaders identify, for example, where professional development is needed and can help evaluate the impact of such training.
  • State policymakers have demonstrated an increasing level of interest in value-added analysis, and a small but growing number of states are explicitly addressing this element in policy.
  • The ability to analyze data across K-12 and higher education allows state policymakers address issues such as reducing the numbers of high school graduates needing remediation. The proposal to create student-unit records as part of the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) could impact these emerging systems, for it changes the nature of the conversation to one that includes the potential for assignment of identifiers that are unique ACROSS the states rather that within states -- and increasing the debate related to issues of student privacy.
The information in this database will be updated as new state policies are enacted.

Last updated: Spring 2006

Please contact Kathy Christie at 303.299.3613 or kchristie@ecs.org with questions or comments about the database.



Statewide student data system uses unique student identifiers State law prohibits use of social security number Unique teacher identifiers State data system includes explicit value-added analysis component State K-12 data system linked to higher education system (accountability at P-16 level) Source

Alabama

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
ALA. CODE Sec. 16-5-7. Alabama State Department of Education Webpage, Unique Student Identifier Presentation.
ALA. CODE Sec. 16-5-7. Alabama State Department of Education Webpage, Unique Student Identifier Presentation.
ALA. CODE Sec. 16-5-7. Alabama State Department of Education Webpage, Unique Student Identifier Presentation.

Alaska

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4, sec. 07.060. ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4, sec. 06.700 et seq.
ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4, sec. 07.060. ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4, sec. 06.700 et seq.
ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4, sec. 07.060. ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4, sec. 06.700 et seq.

Arizona

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1041. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1042. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1043. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1822. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1823.
ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1041. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1042. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1043. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1822. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1823.
ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1041. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1042. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1043. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1822. ARIZ. REV. STAT. Sec. 15-1823.

Arkansas

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes
Notes/Citation: Value-added computations are to be compared to similar national data.

Yes
Notes/Citation: Value-added computations are to be compared to similar national data.

Yes
Notes/Citation: Value-added computations are to be compared to similar national data.
ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-402. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-433. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-435. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-61-127.
ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-402. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-433. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-435. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-61-127.
ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-402. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-433. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-15-435. ARK. CODE ANN. Sec. 6-61-127.

Colorado

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes
COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-7-603.5, 23-5-127, 23-1-109.3, 22-2-106.5
COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-7-603.5; 23-5-127
COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-7-603.5, 23-5-127, 23-1-109.3, 22-2-106.5

Connecticut

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Developing
Notes/Citation: The initial system focuses on student information, provided the system created will allow for future compatibility with financial, facility and staff data.

Developing
Notes/Citation: The initial system focuses on student information, provided the system created will allow for future compatibility with financial, facility and staff data.

Developing
Notes/Citation: The initial system focuses on student information, provided the system created will allow for future compatibility with financial, facility and staff data.

Yes

Yes

Yes
CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-10a
CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-10a
CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-10a

Delaware

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes
Notes/Citation: Unique student i.d. is six digits.

No

Developing

Developing

Developing

No

No

No
Delaware Student Information System (DELSIS)

DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14 § 181 (Delaware Higher Education Commission)
Delaware Student Information System (DELSIS); DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14 § 181 (Delaware Higher Education Commission)
Delaware Student Information System (DELSIS)

DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14 § 181 (Delaware Higher Education Commission)

District of Columbia

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
D.C. CODE ANN. § 38-1800.02 (definition of the "electronic data transfer system")

D.C. CODE § 2-213.02
D.C. CODE ANN. § 38-1800.02 (definition of the "electronic data transfer system") D.C. CODE § 2-213.02
D.C. CODE ANN. § 38-1800.02 (definition of the "electronic data transfer system")

D.C. CODE § 2-213.02

Florida

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1008.345, .385, .37 .43, .31
FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1008.345, .385, .37 .43
FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1008.345, .385, .37 .43, .31

Georgia

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

Yes
Notes/Citation: GA. CODE ANN. 20-2-320

Yes
Notes/Citation: GA. CODE ANN. 20-2-320

No

No

No
GA. STATE BD. RULES 160-5-1-.07

GA. CODE ANN. § 20-14-8
GA. STATE BD. RULES 160-5-1-.07; GA. CODE ANN. § 20-14-8
GA. STATE BD. RULES 160-5-1-.07

GA. CODE ANN. § 20-14-8

Hawaii

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
A Report to the Legislature and the Governor on the Department of Education’s Response to Act 51 (December 2004)
A Report to the Legislature and the Governor on the Department of Education’s Response to Act 51 (December 2004) - http://doe.k12.hi.us/reports/tolegislature/ReportOnEducSystem.pdf
A Report to the Legislature and the Governor on the Department of Education’s Response to Act 51 (December 2004)

Idaho

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
H.B. 367 (2003)
H.B. 367 (2003)
H.B. 367 (2003)

Illinois

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
Illinois State Board of Education Student Information System
Illinois State Board of Education Student Information System
Illinois State Board of Education Student Information System

Indiana

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
IND. CODE § 20-1-1-6.5
Student Test Number
IND. CODE § 20-1-1-6.5? http://www.doe.state.in.us/stn/welcome.html
IND. CODE § 20-1-1-6.5
Student Test Number

Iowa

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
IOWA CODE § 256.9 (52)
IOWA CODE § 256.9 (52)
IOWA CODE § 256.9 (52)

Kansas

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
Kansas Individual Data on Students (KIDS)
Kansas Individual Data on Students (KIDS) - http://kids.ksde.org/
Kansas Individual Data on Students (KIDS)

Kentucky

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes
KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 158.6453

Max Enterprise Data System
Max Enterprise Data System
KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 158.6453

Max Enterprise Data System

Louisiana

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

No
LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:7(2)(c)(d)(e); Profile of Educational Personnel (PEP)
LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:7(2)(c)(d)(e)
LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:7(2)(c)(d)(e); Profile of Educational Personnel (PEP)

Maine

Developing

Developing

Developing

No

No

No

Developing

Developing

Developing

No

No

No
Maine Education Data Management System
Maine Education Data Management System - http://www.maine.gov/education/medms/
Maine Education Data Management System

Maryland

No

No

No

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable




Massachusetts

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 69 § 1I

Student Information Management System (SIMS)
MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 69 § 1I; Student Information Management System (SIMS)
MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 69 § 1I

Student Information Management System (SIMS)

Michigan

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
MICH. COMP. LAWS § 388.1694a

Single Record Student Database
MICH. COMP. LAWS § 388.1694a Single Record Student Databas - http://www.michigan.gov/documents/NewToSRSD1004_106632_7.pdf
MICH. COMP. LAWS § 388.1694a

Single Record Student Database

Minnesota

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Yes
MINN. STAT. § 125B.05, 120B.362

Minnesota Automated Reporting System for Students (MARSS)
MINN. STAT. § 125B.05; Minnesota Automated Reporting System for Students (MARSS)
MINN. STAT. § 125B.05, 120B.362

Minnesota Automated Reporting System for Students (MARSS)

Mississippi

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-151-17, 19

Mississippi Department of Education Technology Plan
MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-151-17 and 19; Mississippi Department of Education Technology Plan - http://www.mde.k12.ms.us/oet/stateplan/pdfs/sheet1.pdf
MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-151-17, 19

Mississippi Department of Education Technology Plan

Missouri

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 5, § 50-350.040
MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 5, § 50-350.040
MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 5, § 50-350.040

Montana

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
MONT. CODE ANN. § 20-3-106(26) - gives authority to state superintendent
MONT. CODE ANN. § 20-3-106(26) - gives authority to state superintendent
MONT. CODE ANN. § 20-3-106(26) - gives authority to state superintendent

Nebraska

Developing

Developing

Developing

Yes
Notes/Citation: The unique Student ID will be computer generated and contain no embedded meaning.

Yes
Notes/Citation: The unique Student ID will be computer generated and contain no embedded meaning.

Yes
Notes/Citation: The unique Student ID will be computer generated and contain no embedded meaning.

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-760

Nebraska Student and Staff Record System

School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System
Nebraska Student and Staff Record System - http://www.nde.state.ne.us/nssrs/Docs/NE_Data_Access_and_Management_Policy505.doc School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System - http://www.nde.state.ne.us/stars/documents/STARSbooklet.04.pdf NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-760
NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-760

Nebraska Student and Staff Record System

School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System

Nevada

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Developing

Developing

Developing

No

No

No
NEV. REV. STAT § 386.650, 386.655
NEV. REV. STAT § 386.650, 386.655
NEV. REV. STAT § 386.650, 386.655

New Hampshire

Developing

Developing

Developing

Yes

Yes

Yes

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 193-C:3, C:9, E:5

Initiative for School Empowerment and Excellence
N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 193-C:3, C:9, E:5 Initiative for School Empowerment and Excellence - http://www.ed.state.nh.us/education/datacollection/i4see.htm
N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 193-C:3, C:9, E:5

Initiative for School Empowerment and Excellence

New Jersey

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
NJ Standards Measurements and Resource for Teaching - NJ NCLB Consolidated State Application Accountabliity Workbook
NJ Standards Measurements and Resource for Teaching - NJ NCLB Consolidated State Application Accountabliity Workbook - http://www.state.nj.us/njded/grants/nclb/workbook.pdf
NJ Standards Measurements and Resource for Teaching - NJ NCLB Consolidated State Application Accountabliity Workbook

New Mexico

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-2C-11; N.M. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6 § 19.5.8 -.9
N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-2C-11; N.M. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6 § 19.5.8 -.9
N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-2C-11; N.M. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6 § 19.5.8 -.9

New York

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

No

No

No

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
New York State Student Identification System (NYSSIS) - System Overview

Statewide Data Collection Activities
New York State Student Identification System (NYSSIS) - System Overview

Statewide Data Collection Activities
New York State Student Identification System (NYSSIS) - System Overview - http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/nysstudents/nyssisho.html http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/fieldmemo-datacollection2.htm

Federal Law

North Carolina

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Developing

Developing

Developing

No

No

No
N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-12, 116-11

NC State Board of Education Policy EEO-C-018

NC Wise
NC Wise - http://www.ncwise.org/default.htm N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-12, 116-11 NC State Board of Education Policy EEO-C-018
N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-12, 116-11

NC State Board of Education Policy EEO-C-018

NC Wise

North Dakota

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Notes/Citation: The student’s ID# is a ten digit unique identifier that is generated by theNorth Dakota Department of Public Instruction.

Yes
Notes/Citation: The student’s ID# is a ten digit unique identifier that is generated by theNorth Dakota Department of Public Instruction.

Yes
Notes/Citation: The student’s ID# is a ten digit unique identifier that is generated by theNorth Dakota Department of Public Instruction.

No

No

No

No

No

No
N.D. CENT. CODE § 15.1-02-08

North Dakota Online Reporting System
N.D. CENT. CODE § 15.1-02-08 North Dakota Online Reporting System - http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/resource/ORS/index.shtm
N.D. CENT. CODE § 15.1-02-08

North Dakota Online Reporting System

Ohio

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Developing

Developing

Developing

Yes
Notes/Citation: Must be implemented by July 1, 2007.

Yes
Notes/Citation: Must be implemented by July 1, 2007.

Yes
Notes/Citation: Must be implemented by July 1, 2007.
OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3301.0714, 3302.021
OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3301.0714, 3302.021
OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3301.0714, 3302.021

Oklahoma

Developing
Notes/Citation: Student Tracking and Reporting Pilot Program

Developing
Notes/Citation: Student Tracking and Reporting Pilot Program

Developing
Notes/Citation: Student Tracking and Reporting Pilot Program

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
OKLA. STAT. tit. 70 § 3-160

H.B. 1021 (2005)
OKLA. STAT. tit. 70 § 3-160 H.B. 1021 (2005)
OKLA. STAT. tit. 70 § 3-160

H.B. 1021 (2005)

Oregon

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
OR. REV. STAT. § 326.565

Secure Student ID (SSID)
OR. REV. STAT. § 326.565 Secure Student ID (SSID)
OR. REV. STAT. § 326.565

Secure Student ID (SSID)

Pennsylvania

No

No

No

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

No

No

No

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable




Rhode Island

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No
R.I. GEN. LAWS § 42-72.5-2
R.I. GEN. LAWS § 42-72.5-2
R.I. GEN. LAWS § 42-72.5-2

South Carolina

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable




South Dakota

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-3-51
S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-3-51
S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-3-51

Tennessee

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No

No
TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-5101
TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-5101
TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-5101

Texas

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

Developing

Developing

Developing

No

No

No
TEX CODE ANN. § 32.158, 42.006

H.B. 1144 (2001)
TEX CODE ANN. § 32.158, 42.006 2001 H.B. 1144
TEX CODE ANN. § 32.158, 42.006

H.B. 1144 (2001)

Utah

Developing
Notes/Citation: School districts request all students to provide the district with a social security number for purposes of identification and electronic record transfer.

Developing
Notes/Citation: School districts request all students to provide the district with a social security number for purposes of identification and electronic record transfer. 2006 legislation requires each public school student to be assigned a unique student identifier that

Developing
Notes/Citation: School districts request all students to provide the district with a social security number for purposes of identification and electronic record transfer. 2006 legislation requires each public school student to be assigned a unique student identifier that

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

No

No

Not applicable

No

No
UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-419-7; UTAH CODE ANN. § 53A-1-603.5
UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-419-7
UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-419-7; UTAH CODE ANN. § 53A-1-603.5

Vermont

Yes

Yes
Unable to locate documentation.
http://www.vermontdata.org/index.htm
Unable to locate documentation.

Virginia

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Developing

Developing

Developing

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable
VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-289

Educational Information Management System
Educational Information Management System (http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/Technology/EIMS/) VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-289
VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-289

Educational Information Management System

Washington

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Notes/Citation: State Student ID (SSID) is randomly generated.

Yes
Notes/Citation: State Student ID (SSID) is randomly generated.

Yes
Notes/Citation: State Student ID (SSID) is randomly generated.

No

No

No

No

No

No
WASH. REV. CODE § 28A.300.130

Core Student Record System
WASH. REV. CODE § 28A.300.130 Core Student Record System
WASH. REV. CODE § 28A.300.130

Core Student Record System

West Virginia

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No
W. VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-13-1

W. VA. CODE § 18-2-5f

West Virginia Education Information System
W. VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-13-1 W. VA. CODE § 18-2-5f West Virginia Education Information System - http://wveis.k12.wv.us/
W. VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-13-1

W. VA. CODE § 18-2-5f

West Virginia Education Information System

Wisconsin

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Notes/Citation: No personal contact information, such as addresses or phone numbers, or social security numbers will be collected or used by the system."

Yes
Notes/Citation: No personal contact information, such as addresses or phone numbers, or social security numbers will be collected or used by the system." http://dpi.wi.gov/lbstat/isesfaq2.html

Yes
Notes/Citation: No personal contact information, such as addresses or phone numbers, or social security numbers will be collected or used by the system."

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes
Wisconsin Individual Student Enrollment System (ISES)
Wisconsin Student Number Locator System (WSLS)
Wisconsin Individual Student Enrollment System (ISES)
Wisconsin Student Number Locator System (WSLS) http://dpi.wi.gov/lbstat/isesfaq2.html
Wisconsin Individual Student Enrollment System (ISES)
Wisconsin Student Number Locator System (WSLS)

Wyoming

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Notes/Citation: Eight digits and assigned randomly from pool.

Yes
Notes/Citation: Eight digits and assigned randomly from pool.

Yes
Notes/Citation: Eight digits and assigned randomly from pool.

No

No

No

No

No

No
WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-2-202(xiv), 21-18-202

Wyoming Integrated Statewide Education Data System (WISE)
WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-2-202(xiv), 21-18-202 Wyoming Integrated Statewide Education Data System (WISE) -http://www.k12.wy.us/WISE/wise_home.htm
WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-2-202(xiv), 21-18-202

Wyoming Integrated Statewide Education Data System (WISE)

American Samoa

Unable to locate
Unable to locate

Guam

No

No

No

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable

Not applicable




Puerto Rico

Unable to locate
Unable to locate

Virgin Islands

© 2016 by the Education Commission of the States (ECS). All rights reserved. ECS is the only nationwide, nonpartisan interstate compact devoted to education.
To request permission to excerpt part of this publication, either in print or electronically, please contact the Education Commission of the States’ Communications Department at (303) 299.3609 or askinner@ecs.org.
Helping State Leaders Shape Education Policy