High School-Level Accountability

High School-Level Accountability


This database provides 50-state information on the indicators, notifications/supports, sanctions and rewards established in state policy in response to federal and state-level accountability initiatives. Policies relate to high school-level (not district-level) accountability.

This database seeks to address the following questions:

1. Indicators

1A . What indicators/measures of quality does the state use to determine high school performance?

Although all states include graduation rate as an indicator, only one state includes college remediation.

1B. What indicators/measures are used for reporting purposes?

Six states report on school safety issues, and one reports on college remediation rate for high schools.

Information on why this issue matters is available through this link.

2. Notification and Supports

2A. Is the state required to provide written warning?

Currently, 33 states provide written warning to low-performing schools.

2B. Is the state or other entity required to provide technical assistance?

Forty-nine states make provisions for technical assistance.

2C. Is the state required to provide additional funding to a low-performing school?

At this time, seven states provide additional funding to a low-performing school.

2D. Is the low-performing school required to create and implement an improvement plan?

Forty-four states require low-performing schools to create and implement an improvement plan.

2E. Is another entity, such as the state, required to create an improvement plan for a low-performing school?

Twenty-seven states and the District of Columbia hold the low-performing school responsible for developing the initial improvement plan. If the school continues to be low-performing, ten states require another entity to create an improvement plan and eight states require another entity to assist in the developent of an improvement plan. Five states require the state, the district or the county board to create the plan.

Information on why this issue matters is available through this link.

3. Sanctions

3A. Does the state have the authority to place a school on probation?

Currently, 19 states have this authority.

3B. Does the state have the authority to remove a low-performing school's accreditation?

Twenty-two states have the authority to remove accreditation.

3C. Does the state have the authority to reconstitute staff?

At present, 43 states can use reconstitution in an effort to not only raise student achievement but also to improve the climate of the school.

3D. Does the state have the authority to reopen the school as a public charter school?

Twenty-two states allow low-performing schools to be closed and reopened as public charter schools.

3E. Does the state have the authority to take over the school?

Twenty-nine states are able to take over a low-performing school.

3F. Does the state have the authority to contract with an outside entity to operate the school?

Currently, 32 states and the District of Columbia have this authority.

3G. Can the state require some other major restructuring?

Twenty-eight states authorize some other form of major restructuring.

Information on why this issue matters is available through this link.

4. Rewards

4A. Does the state reward high-performing schools?

Thirty-nine states currently reward high-performance, and one state is developing a rewards program.

4B. Are the school rewards monetary or nonmonetary?

Sixteen states are have both monetary and nonmonetary rewards.

4C. Are reward recipients school and/or staff?

Schools receive the reward in 33 states, while both schools and staff receive the rewards in four states.

4D. Can school rewards be used for staff bonuses?

Only eight states allow the school reward to be used for staff bonuses.

4E. Are school rewards based on absolute performance or school improvement?

Ten states base the reward on school improvement, and 11 states base the reward on school improvement. Eighteen states base the reward either on school improvement or absolute performance.

Information on why this issue matters is available through this link.

Methodology:
Policies were collected from state statutes, recently enacted legislation (session laws), and rules and regulations. Where necessary, statewide initiatives created outside of policy were collected from state education agencies. The information will be updated as changes occur.

Last updated:
August 2008

Research was conducted by Melodye Bush. Please contact Jennifer Dounay Zinth at 303-299-3689 or jdounay@ecs.org with comments or questions about this database.



Virginia

Indicators for High School Accountability
What indicators/measures of quality does the state use to determine high school performance?
  • Annual measurable objectives in reading
  • Annual measurable objectives in mathematics
  • Graduation rate
  • Participation rate.
What indicators/measures are used for reporting purposes?
  • Assessment results including the percentage of students tested, as well as the percentage of students not tested
  • Performance on the assessment program by student subgroups
  • Accreditation rating awarded to the school
  • Attendance rates for students
  • Information related to school safety to include incidents of physical violence, possession of firearms and other weapons
  • Qualificaitons and experience of the teaching staff including the percentage of teachers endorsed in the area of their primary teaching assignment
  • Percentage of students taking advanced placement courses and percentage taking advanced placement tests
  • Percentage of students enrolled in international baccalaureate or Cambridge programs and percentage of students who receive international baccalaureate or Cambridge diplomas
  • Percentage of students who take college-level courses including dual enrollment courses
  • Percentage of:
    • graduates by diploma types
    • certificates awarded to the senior class, including GED credentials
    • students who do not complete high school
  • Number of students obtaining industry certifications and passing state licensure examinations and occupational competency assessments while still in high school
  • Percentage of dropouts.
Sources Indicators: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-270
Notification and Supports for Low-Performing High Schools
State required to provide written warning? No
State or other entity required to provide technical assistance? Yes
State required to provide additional funding to low-performing school? No
Low-performing school required to create and implement improvement plan? Yes
Does another entity, such as the state, have to create an improvement plan for a low-performing school? No
Sources Notification: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-253.13:5(c), 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-290
Sanctions for Low-Performing High Schools
Does the state have the authority to place a school on probation? No
Does the state have the authority to remove a low-performing school's accreditation? Yes
Does the state have the authority to reconstitute staff? Yes
Does the state have the authority to reopen the school as a public charter school? No
Does the state have the authority to take over the school? No
Does the state have the authority to contract with an outside entity to operate the school? No
Can the state require some other major restructuring? Yes, the school is subject to actions prescribed by the board of education and affirmed through a memorandum of understanding between the board of education and the local school board.  The local school board must submit a corrective action plan to the board of education for its consideration in prescribing actions in the memorandum of understanding.  The memorandum of understanding may include, but not be limited to:
  • Undergoing an educational service delivery and management review with the content prescribed by the board of education
  • Employing a turnaround specialist credentialed by the state to address those conditions at the school that may impede education progress and effectiveness and academic success.

An alternative to the memorandum of understanding would be the local school board choosing to reconstitute a school and apply for conditional accreditation.  The local school board may also choose to combine the school with a higher performing school in the division.

Sources Sanctions: VA. CODE ANN. §§ 22.1-19, 22.1-253.13:3, 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE  §§ 20-131-300(c), 20-131-310, 20-131-315
Rewards
Does the state reward high-performing schools? Yes
School rewards monetary or nonmonetary? Both monetary and nonmonetary
Are reward recipients school and/or staff? Schools
Can school rewards be used for staff bonuses? No
Are school rewards based on absolute performance or school improvement? Both absolute performance and school improvement
Sources Rewards: VA. CODE ANN. §§ 22.1-19, 22.1-253.13:3, 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE 20-131-325

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