K-12 Governance Structures: State Profile

K-12 Governance Structures: State Profile - Maryland

November 2017


Data are collected using publicly available state constitutional language and state statutes. Updated as of Nov. 1, 2017.
 

Governor
What constitutional or statutory duties does the governor have as it relates to education? The executive power of the state shall be vested in a governor.

He shall take care that the laws are faithfully executed.

Every bill passed by the house of delegates and the senate, before it becomes law, shall be presented to the governor of the state. If the governor approves, he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it with his objections.

The governor shall have the power to disapprove of any item or items of any bills making appropriations of money embracing distinct items, and the part or parts of the bill approved shall be the law, and the item or items of appropriations shall be void unless repassed.
What is the appointment authority provided to the governor in education? The governor appoints all members of the state board of education with the advice and consent of the senate.
Are the governor’s duties and powers and found in the state constitution? No
Are the governor’s duties and powers and found in the state statute? Yes
Citation MD Constitution, Art. 2, § 1
MD Constitution, Art. 2, § 9
MD Constitution, Art. 2, § 17
MD Code, Education, § 2-202
Legislature
What constitutional or statutory powers does the legislature have as it relates to education policy? The legislature shall consist of two distinct branches; a senate, and a house of delegates, and shall be styled the General Assembly of Maryland.

The general assembly shall have power to pass all such laws as may be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers vested, by the constitution, in any department, or office of the government, and the duties imposed upon them thereby.

The general assembly shall by law establish throughout the state a thorough and efficient system of free public schools; and shall provide by taxation, or otherwise, for their maintenance.
What is the appointment or confirmation authority of the legislature in education? The senate provides advice and consent for the governor's appointments to the state board of education.
Which committees in the legislature have jurisdiction over education issues? Senate:
Education, Health, and Environmental Affairs
Constitutional? Yes
Statutory? Yes
Citations MD Constitution, Art. 3, § 1
MD Constitution, Art. 3, § 56
MD Constitution, Art. 8, § 1
MD Code, Education, § 2-202
Chief State School Officer
What are the duties of the chief state officer? The state superintendent of education shall:

-Carry out the educational policies of the state board of education.

-Call and conduct conferences of county boards and professional personnel of the county school systems on the condition, needs, and improvement of the schools.

-Prepare and publish pamphlets to stimulate public interest, promote the work of education, foster professional insight and efficiency in teachers.
What constitutional or statutory authority does the chief state school officer have as it relates to education policy? The state superintendent of education has the authority to:

-Approve or disapprove of purchase, sale, remodel, or construction of new school buildings.

-Certify professional personnel in public schools.

-Approve a program of instruction.

-Provide visual aids, educational television, and other aids to facilitate instruction.

-Establish the Early Childhood Development Division.
How is the chief state school officer selected? The state superintendent of education is appointed by the state board of education.
Constitutional? No
Statutory? Yes
Citation MD Code, Education, § 2-303
MD Code, Education, § 2-302
State Board of Education
What constitutional or statutory powers and duties does the state board of education have as it relates to education policy? The state board shall:

-Determine the elementary and secondary educational policies of this state.

-Adopt bylaws, rules, and regulations, for administration of public schools.

-Institute legal proceedings to enforce article, bylaws, rules, and regulations.

-Exercise general control over public schools and the educational interests of the state, except for Baltimore schools.

-Establish basic policy and guidelines for the program of instruction for the public schools.

-Recommend an annual budget to the governor.

-Coordinate the growth and development of elementary and secondary education in the state.
What is the composition of the state board of education? The state board of education consists of 11 regular members appointed from the general public and 1 student member that is regularly enrolled and in good standing in a public high school in the state.
How are members of the state board of education selected? All members of the state board of education are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate.
Constitutional? No
Statutory? Yes
Citation MD Code, Education, § 2-205
MD Code, Education, § 2-202
Executive-Level Secretary
Does the state have an executive-level secretary? N/A
What other duties does the executive-level secretary have? N/A
Constitutional? N/A
Statutory? N/A
Citation N/A

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