Teacher Tenure - Reasons for Dismissal


Teacher Tenure - Reasons for Dismissal

May 2014


Reasons for dismissal
Alabama 1. Incompetence
2. Insubordination
3. Neglect of duty
4. Immorality
5. Justifiable decrease in the number of positions or other good and just cause
6. Failure to perform duties in a satisfactory manner

Requires that the employment of a teacher whose teaching certificate is revoked by the State Superintendent of Education be immediately terminated, pending an overturn of the conviction.
Alaska 1. Incompetence, which is defined as the inability or the unintentional or intentional failure to perform the teacher's customary teaching duties in a satisfactory manner
2. Immorality, which is defined as the commission of an act which, under the laws of the state, constitutes a crime involving moral turpitude
3. Substantial noncompliance with school laws of the state, the regulations or by-laws of the department, the bylaws of the district or the written rules of the superintendent
Arizona 1. Immoral conduct
2. Unprofessional conduct
3. Conduct in violation of the rules, regulations or policies of the governing board
4. Inadequacy of classroom performance
5. Good and just cause
6. Economy
Arkansas 1. Reduction in work force
2. Incompetent performance
3. Conduct that materially interferes with continued performance of teacher’s duties
4. Repeated or material neglect of duty
5. Other just or reasonable cause
California 1.  Immoral or unprofessional conduct
2.  Criminal syndicalism
3.  Dishonesty
4.  Unsatisfactory performance
5.  Evident unfitness for service
6.  Physical or mental condition unfitting him/her to instruct or associate with children
7.  Persistent violation of or refusal to obey school laws of the state or reasonable regulations prescribed for the government of the public schools by the state board of education or by the governing board of the school district employing him or her.
8.  Conviction of a felony or any crime involving moral turpitude
9.  Advocating or teaching communism with intent to indoctrinate
10. Advocating overthrow of the government
11. Knowing membership by the employee in the Communist Party (although this provision has not been challenged in court, it is probably unconstitutional and thus, unenforceable)
12. Alcoholism or drug abuse that makes the employee unfit to instruct or associate with students
Colorado 1. Physical or mental disability
2. Incompetence
3. Neglect of duty
4. Immorality
5. Unsatisfactory performance
6. Insubordination
7. Conviction of a felony, the acceptance of a guilty plea, a plea of nolo contendere or a deferred sentence for a felony
8. Other good and just cause
Connecticut 1. Inefficiency or incompetence
2. Insubordination against reasonable rules of the board of education
3. Moral misconduct
4. Disability, as shown by competent medical evidence
5. Elimination of the position to which the teacher was appointed or loss of a position to another teacher
6. Other due and sufficient cause
Delaware 1. Immorality
2. Misconduct in office
3. Incompetence
4. Disloyalty
5. Neglect of duty
6. Willful and persistent insubordination
7. A reduction in the number of teachers required as a result of decreased enrollment or a decrease in educational services (allowed at school year end).
District of Columbia Not addressed in statute.
Florida A Professional Services Contract renews each year unless:
  • the superintendent charges the teacher with unsatisfactory performance; or
  • the teacher recieves two consecutive annual ratings of "unsatisfactory," two ratings of "unsatisfactory" within a 3-year period, or three consecutive ratings of "needs improvement" or a combination of "needs improvement" and "unsatisfactory."
If a professional service contract holder has been charged with unsatisfactory performance, the evaluator must make recommendations on specific areas of unsatisfactory performance and provide assistance with correcting deficiencies in a specified period of time. The employee must be put on 90-day performance evaluation, during which the employee must be evaluated periodically, apprised of progress achieved, and be provided assistance and in-service training opportunities to help correct the noted performance deficiencies. During the 90 days, the employee may request transfer to another position with a different supervising administrator, but transfer does not extend period for correcting deficiencies. If deficiencies are not corrected after 90 days, evaluator must recommend to superintendent whether board should continue or terminate employee’s contract.

For all contracts except continuing contracts, dismissal is allowed DURING the contract for just cause, including:
  • two consecutive annual performance evaluation ratings of "unsatisfactory" 
  • two annual performance evaluation ratings of "unsatisfactory" within a 3-year period,
  • three consecutive annual performance evaluation ratings of "needs improvement" or a combination of "needs improvement" and "unsatisfactory" 
  • gross insubordination
  • willful neglect of duty 
  • being convicted or found guilty of, or entering a plea of guilty to, regardless of adjudication of guilt, any crime involving moral turpitude.
For those hired prior to 7/1/2011:
Just cause (includes, but not limited to, immorality, misconduct in office, incompetency, gross insubordination, willful neglect of duty, or being convicted or found guilty of, or entering a plea of guilty to, regardless of adjudication of guilt, a crime involving moral turpitude).

Principals can refuse to accept placement or transfer of person who does not have performing rating of "effective" or "highly effective."
Georgia 1. Incompetence
2. Insubordination
3. Willful neglect of duties
4. Immorality
5. Inciting, encouraging, or counseling students to violate any valid state law, municipal ordinance, or policy or rule of the local board of education
6. To reduce staff due to loss of students or cancellation of programs
7. Failure to secure and maintain necessary educational training
8. Any other good and sufficient cause
Hawaii 1. Inefficiency or immorality
2. Willful violations of policies and regulations of the department of education
3. Other good and just cause
4. Failure to return to service, except when caused by illness, following expiration of an approved leave of absence
5. Decrease in the number of pupils or other causes over which the department has no control
Idaho 1. Material violation of any lawful rules or regulations of the board of trustees or of the state board
2. Any conduct that could constitute grounds for revocation of a teaching certificate.
3. When the work of a nonprobationary employee is found to be unsatisfactory, the board establishes a period of probation not less than eight weeks. After the probationary period, the board may retain, immediately discharge, discharge on termination of current contract, or reemploy at the end of the current contract.
4. Financial Emergency
5. Failure to notify acceptance of a renewable contract by the first day of June.
Illinois 1. Incompetence (certificate may be suspended or revoked if “incompetence” demonstrated by 2 or more school terms of “unsatisfactory” ratings during 7 school terms of service.)
2. Cruelty
3. Negligence
4. Immorality
5. On the basis of performance: a teacher may be dismissed if, after receiving an “unsatisfactory” rating, the teacher has failed to complete a remediation plan with a “proficient” or better rating, and the school district has followed all specified processes, and if a teacher receives an “unsatisfactory” evaluation in an annual or biannual performance evaluation during the 36 months following the teacher’s completion of the remediation, the district may forego remediation and seek dismissal
6. Other sufficient cause
7. Not qualified to teach
8. The interest of the schools require it
9. Decrease in the number of teachers employed in a district (RIF)
10. Discontinuance of some particular type of teaching service (RIF)

Provision of 105 ILCS 5/34-85 added in 2011 (just for Chicago) adds that no written warning of causes is required if the causes have been the subject of a remediation plan, or for conduct on the part of a teacher or principal that is cruel, immoral, negligent, or criminal or that in any way causes psychological or physical harm or injury to a student.
Indiana 1. Immorality
2. Insubordination, which means a willful refusal to obey the state school laws or reasonable rules prescribed for the government of the school corporation
3. Justifiable decrease in the number of teaching positions
4. Incompetence, including receiving (a) an "ineffective" designation on 2 consecutive performance evaluations or (b) an "ineffective" designation or "improvement necessary" rating in 3 years of any 5-year period
5. Neglect of duty
6. A conviction for any of the 31 felonies enumerated in § 20-28-5-8
7. Other good and just cause.
Iowa 1. Just cause
Kansas Not addressed in statute.
Kentucky 1. Insubordination, including but not limited to violation of the school laws of the state or administrative regulations adopted by the Kentucky board of education, the Education Professional Standards Board, or lawful rules and regulations established by the local board of education for the operation of schools, or refusal to recognize or obey the authority of the superintendent, principal or any other supervisory personnel of the board in the performance of their duties
2. Immoral character or conduct unbecoming a teacher
3. Physical or mental disability
4. Inefficiency, incompetence or neglect of duty, when a written statement identifying the problems or difficulties has been furnished to the teacher or teachers involved
Louisiana 1. Written and signed charges of poor performance
2. Willful neglect of duty
3. Immorality
4. Incompetence
5. Dishonesty
6. Of being a member of or contributing to any group, organization, movement or corporation that is by law or injunction prohibited from operating in the State of Louisiana
Maine 1. Unfit to teach
2. Services not profitable to the school
3. Just cause

Just cause for dismissal or nonrenewal is a negotiable item in accordance with the procedure set forth for bargaining for teachers who have served beyond the probationary period.

Receipt of summative effectiveness ratings indicating that a teacher is ineffective for 2 consecutive years constitutes just cause for nonrenewal of a teacher's contract unless the ratings are the result of bad faith.
Maryland 1. Immorality
2. Misconduct in office, including knowingly failing to report suspected child abuse in violation of SS 5-704 of the Family Law Article
3. Insubordination
4. Incompetence
5. Willful neglect of duty
Massachusetts 1. Inefficiency
2. Incompetence
3. Incapacity
4. Conduct unbecoming a teacher
5. Insubordination
6. Failure on the part of the teacher to satisfy teacher performance standards
7. Other just cause
Michigan Only for a reason that is not arbitrary or capricious, including:
1. "Ineffective" ratings on 3 consecutive annual year-end evaluations
2. Being charged with a crime listed in section 1535a(1) or a substantially similar law and failing to report the charge to the department and the school district
3. Entering a plea of guilt or no contest to or being the subject of a finding of guilt by a judge or jury of any crime after having been initially charged with a crime described in section 1535a(1) AND failing to disclose to the court that the individual is employed in a district.
Minnesota Grounds for termination at end of school year:
1. Inefficiency in teaching or in the management of a school
2. Neglect of duty, or persistent violation of school laws, rules, regulations or directives
3. Conduct unbecoming a teacher that materially impairs the teacher's educational effectiveness
4. Other good and sufficient grounds rendering the teacher unfit to perform the teacher's duties.

Grounds for discharge of demotion:
1. Immoral character, conduct unbecoming a teacher, or insubordination
2. Failure without justifiable cause to teach without first securing the written release of the school board having the care, management, or control of the school in which the teacher is employed
3. Inefficiency in teaching or in the management of a school
4. Affliction with active tuberculosis or other communicable disease must be considered as cause for removal or suspension while the teacher is suffering from such disability
5. Discontinuance of position or lack of pupils.

Grounds for immediate discharge:
1. Immoral conduct, insubordination, or conviction of a felony
2. Conduct unbecoming a teacher
3. Failure without justifiable cause to teach without first securing the written release of the school board
4. Gross inefficiency which the teacher has failed to correct after reasonable written notice
5. Willful neglect of duty
6. Continuing physical or mental disability subsequent to a 12-month leave of absence and inability to qualify for reinstatement
7. Receipt of notice that the teacher’s license has been revoked due to a conviction for child abuse or sexual abuse.
Mississippi 1. Incompetence
2. Neglect of duty
3. Immoral conduct
4. Intemperance
5. Brutal treatment of a pupil
6. Other good cause
Missouri For metropolitan districts:
1. Immorality
2. Incompetency or inefficiency in line of duty
3. Violation of the published regulations of the school district
4. Violation of the laws of Missouri governing the public schools of the state
5. Physical or mental condition that incapacitates for instructing or associating with children

For other districts:
1. Physical or mental condition which incapacitates for instructing or associating with children
2. Immoral conduct
3. Incompetency, inefficiency or insubordination in line of duty
4. Willful or persistent violation of, or failure to obey, the school laws of the state or the published regulations of the board of education employing him
5. Excessive or unreasonable absence from performance of duties
6. Conviction of a felony or a crime involving moral turpitude
Montana 1. Good Cause
Nebraska 1. Upon cancellation, termination, revocation or suspension of a teacher's certificate, by the state board of education, or of the Nebraska administrative and supervisory certificate, or the Nebraska professional administrative and supervisory certificate of any certificated employee whose duties require such a certificate.
2. Incompetence (including but not limited to demonstrated deficiencies or shortcomings in knowledge of subject matter, or teaching or administrative skills)
3. Neglect of duty
4. Unprofessional conduct
5. Insubordination
6. Immorality
7. Physical or mental incapacity
8. Failure to give evidence of professional growth (only at year-end completion of contract)
9. Other conduct that interferes substantially with the continued performance of duties (only at year-end completion of contract)
10. Reduction in force (only at year-end completion of contract)
Nevada 1. Inefficiency
2. Immorality
3. Insubordination
4. Unprofessional conduct
5. Neglect of duty
6. Physical or mental incapacity
7. A justifiable decrease in the number of positions due to decreased enrollment or district reorganization
8. Conviction of a felony or of a crime involving moral turpitude
9. Inadequate performance
10. Evident unfitness for service
11. Failure to comply with such reasonable requirements as a board may prescribe
12. Failure to show normal improvement and evidence of professional training and growth
13. Advocating overthrow of the Government of the United States or the State of Nevada by force, violence or other unlawful means, or the advocating of teaching of communism with the intent to indoctrinate pupils to subscribe to communistic philosophy
14. Any cause which constitutes grounds for the revocation of a teacher's license
15. Willful neglect or failure to observe and carry out the requirements of the education code
16. Dishonesty
17. Breaches in the security or confidentiality of the questions and answers of the achievement and proficiency examinations that are administered pursuant to NRS 389.015 and the college and career readiness assessment administered pursuant to NRS 389.807
18. Intentional failure to observe and carry out the requirements of a plan to ensure the security of examinations
19. Intentionally using aversive intervention on a pupil with disabilities, including the use of physical and mechanical restraints
20. Gross misconduct
21. Intentional failure to report bullying or cyber-bullying if the teacher witnessed it

Teacher evaluations, while not the sole criterion, must be used in the dismissal process.
New Hampshire The school board may dismiss any teacher:
1. Found by them to be immoral
2. Who has not satisfactorily maintained competency standards established by the school district
3. Who does not conform to regulations prescribed.

Nonrenewal or nonrenomination:
• Grounds for nonrenomination and nonreelection are determined at the sole discretion of the school board.

Termination:
• Conviction of homicide, child pornography, aggravated felonious sexual assault, felonious sexual assault or kidnapping
New Jersey 1. Inefficiency – the superintendent is required to file a charge of inefficiency when: (a) a teacher is rated "ineffective" or "partially effective" and is rated "ineffective" in the following year; (b) a teacher is rated "partially effective" in two consecutive evaluations or is rated "ineffective" and the following year is rated "partially effective"
2. Incapacity
3. Unbecoming conduct
4. Other just cause
New Mexico Termination (at year-end contract expiration):
1. Any reason the board deems sufficient for employees with fewer than 3 years of service
2. Just cause (a reason that is rationally related to an employee's competence or turpitude, or the proper performance of duties) for employees with more than 3 years of service

Discharge (prior to expiration of current contract):
1. Just cause, regardless of length of service
New York 1. Insubordination, immoral character or conduct unbecoming a teacher
2. Inefficiency, incompetence, physical or mental disability, or neglect of duty
3. Failure to maintain certification as required by statute and by regulations of the commissioner
North Carolina 1. Inadequate performance*
2. Immorality
3. Insubordination
4. Neglect of duty
5. Physical or mental incapacity
6. Habitual or excessive use of alcohol or non-medical use of a controlled substance as defined in Article 5, Chapter 90 of the General Statutes
7. Conviction of a felony or a crime involving moral turpitude
8. Advocating the overthrow of the government of the United States or the State of North Carolina by force, violence or other unlawful means
9. Failure to fulfill the duties and responsibilities imposed upon teachers by the General Statutes of this State
10. Failure to comply with such reasonable requirements as the board may prescribe
11. Any cause that constitutes grounds for the revocation of such career teacher's teaching certificate
12. A justifiable decrease in the number of positions due to district reorganization, decreased enrollment or decreased funding
13. Failure to maintain his/her certificate in a current status
14. Failure to repay money owed to the state in accordance with the provisions of Article 60, Chapter 143 of the General Statutes
15. Providing false information or knowingly omitting a material fact on an application for employment or in response to a pre-employment inquiry
16. For certain employees of lowest-performing schools, failing to pass a general knowledge test 3 times.

* Defines inadequate performance: Inadequate performance for a teacher means (i) the failure to perform at a proficient level on any standard of the evaluation instrument or (ii) otherwise performing in a manner that is below standard. However, for a probationary teacher, a performance rating below "proficient" may or may not be deemed adequate at that stage of development by a superintendent or designee. For a career teacher, a performance rating below "proficient" constitutes inadequate performance unless the principal noted on the instrument that the teacher is making adequate progress toward proficiency given the circumstances.

Detailed procedures for developing mandatory improvement plans for teachers not meeting evaluation standards, with specific provisions for low-performing schools.
North Dakota Non-renewal of contract:
1. Originate from specific findings documented in the report of the individual’s performance required by section 15.1-15-01 and relate to the individual’s ability, competence and qualifications
2. Originate from the needs of the district in justifying a reduction in staff

Cause:
1. Immoral conduct
2. Insubordination
3. Conduct unbecoming the position
4. Conviction of a felony
5. Failure to perform contracted duties without justification
6. Gross inefficiency that the individual has failed to correct after written notice
7. Continuing physical or mental disability that renders the individual unfit or unable to perform duties
Ohio Contracts may be terminated only for good and just cause. The provisions of statute relating to the grounds for termination of the contract prevail over any conflicting provisions of a collective bargaining agreement.

School district boards must include in their teacher evaluation policy procedures for using evaluation results for retention and promotion decisions and for removal of poorly performing teachers. Seniority cannot be the basis for a decision to retain a teacher, except when making a decision between teachers who have comparable evaluations.

Beginning in the 2015-16 school year, classroom teachers teaching in a core subject area who have received a rating of "ineffective" for two of the three most recent years must take a written examination of content knowledge. If the teacher passes the examination, the teacher is required to complete professional development that is targeted to the deficiencies identified in the evaluations. An ineffective rating received after completing the professional development is grounds for termination. A decision to terminate or not renew a teacher’s contract cannot be made solely on the basis of the examination results unless the teacher has failed to pass the same examination at least three times.
Oklahoma 1. Willful neglect of duty
2. Repeated negligence in performance of duty
3. Mental or physical abuse to a child
4. Incompetence
5. Instructional ineffectiveness
6. Unsatisfactory teaching performance
7. Commission of an act of moral turpitude.
8. Felony conviction unless pardon issued
9. Criminal sexual activity (sodomy) that impedes effectiveness of school duty performance
10. Sexual misconduct (soliciting or imposing of criminal sexual activity that impedes effectiveness of school duty performance)
11. Abandonment of contract
12. A rating of "ineffective" in two consecutive school years
13. A rating of "needs improvement" or lower for three consecutive school years
14. Failure to average a rating of at least "effective" over a 5-year period
Oregon 1. Inefficiency
2. Immorality
3. Insubordination
4. Neglect of duty, including duties specified by written rule
5. Physical or mental incapacity
6. Conviction of a felony or of a crime according to the provisions of ORS 342.143 (crimes that preclude issuance of a teaching license)
7. Inadequate performance
8. Failure to comply with such reasonable requirements as the board may prescribe to show normal improvement and evidence of professional training and growth
9. Any cause that constitutes grounds for the revocation of a teacher's teaching license.
Pennsylvania 1. Immorality
2. Incompetence
3. Unsatisfactory teaching performance based on 2 consecutive ratings of the employee's teaching performance that are to include classroom observations, not less than 4 months apart, in which the employee's performance is rated as unsatisfactory.
4. Intemperance
5. Cruelty
6. Persistent negligence in the performance of duties
7. Willful neglect of duties
8. Physical or mental disability as documented by competent medical evidence, which after reasonable accommodation of such disability as required by law substantially interferes with the employee's ability to perform the essential functions of his/her employment
9. Advocating of or participating in un-American or subversive doctrines
10. Conviction of a felony or acceptance of a guilty plea or nolo contendere therefore
11. Persistent and willful violation of or failure to comply with the school laws of the commonwealth

If an employee is to be dismissed for incompetence or unsatisfactory teaching performance, the employee must be rated under an approved rating system.
Rhode Island 1. Good and just cause

A school committee may agree, in a collective bargaining agreement, to the arbitration of disputes arising out of the dismissal of a tenured teacher.
South Carolina 1. Fails, or is incompetent, to give instruction in accordance with the directions of superintendent, or who otherwise manifests an evident unfitness for teaching such as:
a. Persistent neglect of duty
b. Willful violation of rules and regulations of district board of trustees
c. Drunkenness
d. Conviction of a violation of the state or U.S. laws
e. Gross immorality
f. Dishonesty
g. Illegal use, sale or possession of drugs or narcotics
South Dakota Just cause, including:
1. Poor performance
2. Incompetence
3. Gross immorality
4. Unprofessional conduct
5. Insubordination
6. Neglect of duty
7. Violation of any policy or regulation of the school district
8. Breach of contract
Tennessee 1. Incompetence
2. Inefficiency, which includes, but is not limited to, having evaluations demonstrating an overall performance effectiveness level that is "below expectations" or "significantly below expectations"
3. Neglect of duty
4. Unprofessional conduct
5. Insubordination
Texas 1. Necessary reduction of personnel by the school district (such reductions shall be made in the reverse order of seniority in the specific teaching fields)
2. For good cause as determined by the local school board, good cause being the failure of a teacher to meet the accepted standards of conduct for the profession as generally recognized and applied in similarly situated school districts throughout Texas.
Utah A career employee's contract may be terminated during its term for reasons of unsatisfactory performance. The district must:
1. Provide and discuss with the career employee written documentation clearly identifying the deficiencies in performance;
2. Provide written notice that the contract is subject to nonrenewal or termination if, upon a reevaluation of the career employee's performance, the performance is determined to be unsatisfactory;
3. Develop and implement a plan of assistance, in accordance with procedures and standards established by the local school board, to allow the career employee an opportunity to improve performance;
4. Reevaluate the career employee's performance; and
5. If the career employee's performance remains unsatisfactory, give notice of intent to not renew or terminate the contract.

If upon a reevaluation of the career employee's performance, the district determines the performance is satisfactory, and within a three-year period after the initial documentation of unsatisfactory performance for the same deficiency the career employee's performance is determined to be unsatisfactory, the district may elect to not renew or terminate the contract. If a district intends to not renew or terminate a career employee's contract, the district must provide written documentation of the deficiencies in performance and give notice of intent to not renew or terminate the contract.
Vermont For non-renewal of contract:
1. Non-probationary teacher: Just and sufficient cause

Probationary teacher: Any reason other than those prohibited by law. The standard for nonrenewal for a probationary teacher's contract is just and sufficient cause if the teacher has not received at least two written performance evaluations per year of probationary service.

For dismissal (all teachers):
1. Incompetence
2. Conduct unbecoming a teacher
3. Failure to attend to duties
4. Failure to carry out reasonable orders and directions of the superintendent and school board.
Virginia 1. Incompetence, which is defined to include, but not be limited to, consistent failure to meet the endorsement requirements for the position or one or more unsatisfactory performance evaluations.
2. Immorality
3. Noncompliance with school laws and regulations
4. Disability as shown by competent medical evidence when in compliance with federal law
5. Conviction of a felony or a crime of moral turpitude
6. Subject of a founded complaint of child abuse or neglect
7. Other good and just cause
Washington 1. Probable cause
2. Certificate or permit is subject to revocation upon a guilty plea or conviction of any specified felony crime

When a continuing contract employee with five or more years of experience receives a comprehensive summative evaluation performance rating below level 2 for two consecutive years, the school district must, within ten days of the completion of the second summative comprehensive evaluation or May 15th, whichever occurs first, implement the employee notification of discharge.
West Virginia 1. Immorality
2. Incompetence
3. Cruelty
4. Insubordination
5. Intemperance
6. Willful neglect of duty
7. Unsatisfactory performance
8. Conviction of a felony or a guilty plea or a plea of nolo contendere to a felony charge
Wisconsin 1. Inefficiency or immorality
2. For willful and persistent violation of reasonable regulations of the governing body of the school system or school
3. For other good cause, upon written charges based on fact preferred by the governing body or other proper officer of the school system or school in which the teacher is employed.
Wyoming 1. Incompetency
2. Neglect of duty
3. Immorality, including, without limitation, engaging in any conduct with a student which is a violation of state laws
4. Insubordination
5. Physical incapacity to perform job duties even with reasonable accommodation
6. Failure to perform duties in a satisfactory manner
7. Beginning in the 2016-17 school year, inadequate performance as determined through performance evaluation tied to student academic growth for at least two consecutive years completed in accordance with state law
8. Conviction of a felony
9. Any other good or just cause relating to the educational process.

© 2019 by the Education Commission of the States (ECS). All rights reserved. ECS is the only nationwide, nonpartisan interstate compact devoted to education. 700 Broadway #810, Denver, CO 80203-3442

To request permission to excerpt part of this publication, either in print or electronically, please contact the Education Commission of the States’ Communications Department at 303.299.3609 or askinner@ecs.org.

Your Education Policy Team  www.ecs.org