Service-Learning/Community Service as a Strategy for Fostering Student Outcomes
Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • Fax: 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org

Service-Learning/Community Service as a Strategy for Fostering Student Outcomes

January 2014


This report highlights selected state policies which identify service-learning/community service as a strategy to foster positive student outcomes, including student achievement, civic engagement and workplace readiness.

Service-learning is identified as an instructional strategy to increase student achievement Service-learning is identified as a strategy to increase student civic engagement Service-learning is identified as a means of preparing students for the workplace
Alabama No The course of study for social studies includes a position statement supporting the use of service-learning as an instructional strategy, noting that students gain valuable learning experiences that deepen their understanding not only of the curriculum but also of civic responsibility, including what it means to be responsible community members.

Alabama Course of Study: Social Studies, Bulletin 2004, No. 18; Adopted 2004; Effective 2005-2006 School Year. Alabama Department of Education. http://www.alsde.edu/home/Sections/DocumentDownload.aspx?SectionID=54&SubsectionID=5&Year=2004&FileName=02SSIntro.rtf. [Accessed December 4, 2013.]
No
Alaska No
No
No
Arizona No
No
No
Arkansas No
No
No
California School district governing boards and county offices of education are authorized to offer independent study to meet the educational needs of pupils. Independent study may include volunteer community service activities and leadership opportunities that support and strengthen pupil achievement.

Cal. Educ. Code § 51745


The career technical education framework identifies career-based service learning as an activity that drives development of academic and workplace skills, filling the gap between school and work.

Career Technical Education Framework for California Public Schools Grades Seven Through Twelve. California Department of Education, 2007. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/sf/documents/cteframework.pdf. [Accessed December 5, 2013.]


The history-social science framework recognizes service learning as a strategy with demonstrated effectiveness in improving student achievement and proving the foundational knowledge and skills for community participation and civic engagement.

History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools. California Department of Education, 2005. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/histsocsciframe.pdf. [Accessed December 5, 2013.]


The reading-language arts framework recognizes service learning as a strategy to improve literacy and to build civic responsibility.

Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools. California Department of Education, 2007. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/rlafw.pdf. [Accessed December 5, 2013.]
The history-social science framework recognizes service learning as a strategy with demonstrated effectiveness in improving student achievement and proving the foundational knowledge and skills for community participation and civic engagement.

History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools. California Department of Education. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/histsocsciframe.pdf. [Accessed December 5, 2013.]


The reading-language arts framework recognizes service learning as a strategy to improve literacy and to build civic responsibility.

Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools. California Department of Education. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/cf/documents/rlafw.pdf. [Accessed December 5, 2013.]


Community colleges and the state department of education must collaborate with school districts on middle college high schools. The goal of these high schools is to serve students at-risk of dropping out with a instructional program focused on college preparatory and school-to-work curricula, career education, work experience, community service, and support and motivational activities.

Cal. Educ. Code § 11300


The career technical education model curriculum standards identify work-based learning, which includes service learning, as a strategy that increases students’ technical skills and knowledge and helps shape career decision making.

California Career Technical Education Model Curriculum Standards. California Department of Education, January 2013. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/sf/documents/ctestdfrontpages.pdf. [Accessed December 5, 2013.]


The career technical education framework identifies career-based service learning as an activity that drives development of academic and workplace skills, filling the gap between school and work.

Career Technical Education Framework for California Public Schools Grades Seven Through Twelve. California Department of Education, 2007. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/sf/documents/cteframework.pdf. [Accessed December 5, 2013.]
Colorado The standards for individual career and academic plans (ICAP) must include career planning and guidance and a portfolio that includes, among other items, information about the student’s experiences in contextual and service learning.

Colo. Rev. Stat. § 22-2-136
1 Colo. Code Regs. § 301-81:2


Beginning no later than a student's 9th grade year, the ICAP must include goals for the student based on academic and career interests and to identify required academic courses, career courses, electives, and contextual and service learning opportunities aligned to the district's programs of instruction related to postsecondary and workforce readiness.

1 Colo. Code Regs. § 301-81:2
No
Contextual and service learning is defined as activities performed by the student that establish connections between school-based instruction and the world of work, careers, and learning that occurs beyond the school itself.

1 Colo. Code Regs. § 301-81:2

Connecticut No
No
While service-learning is not specifically mentioned in Connecticut’s common core of teaching, the teaching standards are broken into six comains, one of which directly relates to service-learning. Domain 3.6 requires integrating learning activities that make real-world, career, or global connections, and promote interdisciplinary connections whenever possible.

Educator Standards and Assessments. Connecticut State Department of Education, 2010. http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/educatorstandards/board_approved_cct_2-3-2010.pdf. [Accessed December 12, 2013.]
Delaware One of the several Model options for a school that is a persistently low-achieving school is the transformational model, in which a district or charter school increases learning time to provide additional time for instruction in core subjects and instruction in other subjects and enrichment activities that contribute to a well-rounded education, including service-learning.

14 Del. Admin. Code 103-7.6.2.4.1.8


Service-learning is included on the Department of Education’s webpage on improvement strategies and resources. In addition to links to service-learning organizations, among the ideas for expanding student awareness of the global society is promoting opportunities for service-learning abroad.

Teaching and Learning Improvement Strategies and Resources. Delaware Department of Education. http://www.doe.k12.de.us/dess/tnl/ec4_strat.shtml. [Accessed December 12, 2013.]
Noting that the active participation of young adults in volunteer activities is necessary to achieve a truly healthy community, the purpose of the Delaware Volunteerism Act is to instill the spirit of volunteerism in young people who may display that spirit repeatedly in their future years by encouraging volunteerism among high school students.

Del.Code Ann. tit. 14, § 8901A
No
District of Columbia No The state superintendent of education is required to submit a long-term reform plan each year that describes how public schools will become a world-class education system that prepares students for lifetime learning in the 21st century. One of the areas to be addressed is the establishment of after-school programs that promote self-confidence, self-discipline, self-respect, good citizenship, and respect for leaders, through such activities as arts classes, physical fitness programs, and community service.

D.C. Code Ann. § 38-1801.01
No
Florida State law defines service learning as a student-centered, research-based teaching and learning strategy that engages students in meaningful service activities in their schools or communities. It further states that service-learning activities are directly tied to academic curricula, standards, and course, district, or state assessments and service-learning activities foster academic achievement, character development, civic engagement, and career exploration and enable students to apply curriculum content, skills, and behaviors taught in the classroom.

Fla. Stat. Ann. § 1003.497
State law defines service learning as a student-centered, research-based teaching and learning strategy that engages students in meaningful service activities in their schools or communities. It further states that service-learning activities are directly tied to academic curricula, standards, and course, district, or state assessments and service-learning activities foster academic achievement, character development, civic engagement, and career exploration and enable students to apply curriculum content, skills, and behaviors taught in the classroom.

Fla. Stat. Ann. § 1003.497
State law identifies service-learning activities as activities that foster career exploration, academic achievement, character development, and civic engagement and enable students to apply curriculum content, skills, and behaviors taught in the classroom.

Fla. Stat. Ann. § 1003.497
Georgia Service learning programs are identified as a strategy to reinforce academic learning through hands-on community service activities.

Ga. Comp. R. & Regs. 160-1-4-.258
No 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students are provided counseling, advisement, career awareness, career interest inventories, and information to assist them in evaluating their academic skills and career interests. Before the end of the second semester of 8th grade, students develop an individual graduation plan. High school students are provided guidance, advisement, and counseling to enable them to successfully complete their individual graduation plans, preparing them for a seamless transition to postsecondary study, further training, or employment. An individual graduation plan must include, among a number of other items, experience-based, career-oriented learning experiences which may include internships, apprenticeships, mentoring, co-op education, and service learning.

Ga. Code Ann. § 20-2-327
Ga. Comp. R. & Regs. 160-4-8-.09
Hawaii No No No
Idaho No Rules governing the thorough education of public school students include a definition of service learning that states that service learning activities integrated into the academic curriculum provide students with opportunities to use their skills and knowledge in real-life situations in their communities and help foster the development of a sense of caring for others. 

Idaho Admin. Code 08.02.03.008
No
Illinois No The Community Service Education Act recognizes that community service education programs educate students about the value of civic involvement, and that students, citizens, civic groups, businesses, and community organizations benefit from these programs.

105 ILCS 60/5
No
Indiana State Board of Education regulations recognize that elementary and middle school curricula are enriched through the integration of community service-learning activities that apply curriculum-based knowledge in experiential settings.

511 Ind. Admin. Code 6.1-5-3
511 Ind. Admin. Code 6.1-5-2


The 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program is a federally-funded program that provides at-risk students a safe environment during non-school hours. The program centers are required to provide a range of high-quality services to support regular school-day academics and development, including, among other things, service learning opportunities.

21st Century Community Learning Centers Program. Indiana Department of Education, December 2013. http://www.doe.in.gov/21stcclc. [Accessed December 16, 2013.]
No No
Iowa The 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program is a federally-funded program that provides at-risk students a safe environment during non-school hours. Among the activities identified as ones found in quality before- and after-school programs are volunteer and community service opportunities and mentoring and service learning.

Title IV - Part B - 21st Century Community Learning Centers. Iowa Department of Education. https://www.educateiowa.gov/pk-12/title-programs/title-iv-part-b-21st-century-community-learning-centers, [Accessed December 16, 2013.]
No No
Kansas No No No
Kentucky No No
Secondary career and technical education programs must provide opportunities for students to participate in high quality work-based learning experiences related to the program in which they are enrolled. These work-based learning experiences may include service learning.

705 Ky. Admin. Regs. 4:231
Louisiana No No Among options to aid in curriculum design that may be incorporated into high school career major programs are arrangements for students to complete more in-depth study through job shadowing, mentoring, paid or unpaid internships, pre-apprenticeships, registered apprenticeship programs, community service, project learning, school-based enterprises, and early admission to postsecondary education or training.

La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 17:183.5


The Students Teaching and Reaching (STAR) I program is designed to provide a career focus by offering an overview of the teaching profession. The curriculum framework requires students to provide community service as a volunteer.

La. Admin. Code tit. 28, pt. CXXV, § 315


The Students Teaching and Reaching (STAR) II program offers secondary courses in teacher preparation. The curriculum framework for the program includes benchmark standards related to service learning, including a requirement that students participate in a variety of field experiences and provide leadership in developing service learning projects. In addition, the framework specifies that the curriculum may include designing individual internships or collaborating to create a service-learning project with school or community partners.

La. Admin. Code tit. 28, pt. CXXV, §§ 1501-1915


The curriculum framework for family and consumer sciences content includes a benchmark requiring students to plan, conduct, and assess ongoing activities or projects, such as service learning, to address the needs of human service agencies and schools.

La. Admin. Code tit. 28, pt. LXXIII, § 507


The curriculum framework for general technology education, which is designed to provide students with the opportunity to explore a variety of technical careers thought contemporary technology education activities, requires work-based learning strategies including field trips, service learning, and job shadowing.

La. Admin. Code tit. 28, pt. LXXXI, § 2503


The curriculum framework for energy, power, and transportation technology includes work-based learning strategies such as field trips, service learning, and job shadowing.

La. Admin. Code tit. 28, pt. LXXXI, § 2535
Maine No No No
Maryland No No No
Massachusetts No
No No
Michigan The State Board of Education’s “Policies for Affirming Service-Learning” states that service-learning addresses the long-term goals of quality student academic achievement, workforce readiness, safe and secure learning environments, and a strengthened democracy and civil society.

Policies for Affirming Service-Learning. Michigan State Board of Education, May 9, 2002. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/servicelearning_78797_7.pdf. [Accessed December 20, 2010.]
The State Board of Education’s “Policies for Affirming Service-Learning” states that service-learning addresses the long-term goals of quality student academic achievement, workforce readiness, safe and secure learning environments, and a strengthened democracy and civil society.

Policies for Affirming Service-Learning. Michigan State Board of Education, May 9, 2002. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/servicelearning_78797_7.pdf. [Accessed December 20, 2010.]
The State Board of Education’s “Policies for Affirming Service-Learning” states that service-learning addresses the long-term goals of quality student academic achievement, workforce readiness, safe and secure learning environments, and a strengthened democracy and civil society.

Policies for Affirming Service-Learning. Michigan State Board of Education, May 9, 2002. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/servicelearning_78797_7.pdf. [Accessed December 20, 2010.]
Minnesota One of the stated purposes of the ServeMinnesota Innovation Act is to demonstrate the connection between youth and community service, community service and education, and education and meaningful opportunities in the business community and to prepare a citizenry that is academically competent, ready for work, and socially responsible.

Minn. Stat. Ann. § 124D.37
One of the stated purposes of the ServeMinnesota Innovation Act is to demonstrate the connection between youth and community service, community service and education, and education and meaningful opportunities in the business community and to prepare a citizenry that is academically competent, ready for work, and socially responsible.

Minn. Stat. Ann. § 124D.37
Among the goals of the statewide education and employment transitions system, which takes a lifelong approach to workforce development, is to integrate opportunities for work-based learning, service-learning, and other applied learning methods into the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary curriculum and state and local graduation standards.

Minn. Stat. Ann. § 124D.46


Among the objectives of a local education and employment transitions system is eliminating barriers to providing effective integrated applied learning, service-learning, or work-based curriculum; identifying and enlisting local and regional employers who can effectively provide work-based or service-learning opportunities, including apprenticeships, internships, and mentorships; and improving the coordination and effectiveness of local vocational and job training programs, including vocational education, adult basic education, tech prep, apprenticeship, service-learning, youth entrepreneur, youth training and employment programs administered by the commissioner of employment and economic development, and local job training programs under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998.
 
Minn. Stat. Ann. § 124D.49
Mississippi

Service learning is identified as an effective strategy for dropout prevention. It is identified as connecting meaningful community service experiences with academic learning that promotes personal and social growth, career development, and civic responsibility and as a powerful vehicle for effective school reform at all grade levels.

Code Miss. R. 7-1-52:5

Service learning is identified as an effective strategy for dropout prevention. It is identified as connecting meaningful community service experiences with academic learning that promotes personal and social growth, career development, and civic responsibility and as a powerful vehicle for effective school reform at all grade levels.

Code Miss. R. 7-1-52:5
No
Missouri The State Board of Education is required to encourage school districts to adopt service-learning programs and projects. Service-learning programs and projects are defined as student-centered, research-based methods of teaching and learning that engage students in solving problems and addressing issues in their school or greater community as part of the academic curriculum fostering academic achievement, civic engagement, and character development.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 170.037.1
The State Board of Education is required to encourage school districts to adopt service-learning programs and projects. Service-learning programs and projects are defined as student-centered, research-based methods of teaching and learning that engage students in solving problems and addressing issues in their school or greater community as part of the academic curriculum fostering academic achievement, civic engagement, and character development.

Mo. Rev. Stat. § 170.037.1
No
Montana No A basic program in social studies must include practices that promote decision-making skills and civic responsibilities through active participation such as service learning projects.

Mont. Admin. R. 10.55.1601
Service learning is identified as a strategy to prepare students for the workplace in the benchmarks for workplace competencies and career and vocational/technical education.

Mont. Admin. Reg. 10.54.9522
Mont. Admin. Reg. 10.54.8033
Mont. Admin. Reg. 10.54.9543
Nebraska No
No Service-learning projects are identified as career applications that prepare students for their next step in their career development.

Nebraska Work-Based Learning Manual. Nebraska Department of Education, October 2001. http://www.education.ne.gov/wbl/PDF/ManualPart1.pdf. [Accessed December 18, 2013.]
Nevada No No No
New Hampshire No School boards are required to adopt a policy on character and citizenship development. The policy must include those elements of character and citizenship to be incorporated in courses of study or instilled, by example, in a caring educational environment, including, among other things, community service.

NH ADC ED 306.04


Middle school family and consumer sciences curriculum  should provide opportunities for students to develop good citizenship and social responsibility by building connections between content and action through service-learning, hands-on projects, production of goods and services, student research, projects and events of the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) youth organization.

FCS Middle School Program Guidelines – Foundations of Work and Family. New Hampshire Department of Education, January 2007. http://www.education.nh.gov/career/career/documents/family_1d.pdf. [Accessed December 18, 2013.]

No
New Jersey No For purposes of career and technical education programs and standards, service learning is defined as unpaid structured learning experiences taking place in the community that are designed to foster students' community service and civic responsibility.

N.J. Admin. Code 6A:19-1.2
No
New Mexico No No A career readiness alternative program of study leading to a diploma or conditional certificate of transition is available to students with an IEP. Course work includes a minimum of four units of career development opportunities and learning experiences that may include career readiness and vocational course work, work experience, community-based instruction, student service learning, job shadowing, mentoring, or entrepreneurships related to the student's occupational choices.

N.M. Admin. Code § 6.29.1
New York School violence prevention grants are awarded to school districts on a competitive basis for school safety and violence prevention programs. Among the activities eligible for grant funding are extended day activities that are conducted outside the regular school day and in which students can participate in extracurricular enrichment activities, including community services and related programs, that will increase student achievement and contribute to school violence prevention.

N.Y. Educ. Law § 2814

No A Regents Certificate of Work Readiness may be issued to a student with a disability to document preparation for entry-level employment after high school. Among the requirements for a certificate are that the student has demonstrated knowledge and skills relating to the career development occupational studies learning standards by completing not less than the equivalent of two units of study in career development courses and/or work-based learning experiences. The equivalent units of study can be earned through career and technical education courses and/or work-based learning experiences, provided that the student has successfully completed a minimum of 54 hours of documented work-based learning experiences related to career awareness, exploration and/or preparation. Work-based learning experiences may include, among other experiences, job shadowing, community service, volunteering, service learning, senior projects, or school-based enterprise.

N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. 8, § 100.6
North Carolina No No Service-learning is one of the recommended work-based strategies for courses in family and consumer sciences programs of study.

Family and Consumer Sciences Programs of Study.  North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. http://www.ncpublicschools.org/cte/program-areas/family/programs. [Accessed December 19, 2013.]
North Dakota No No Two service learning courses listed in the high school career and technical supplementary services course codes for grades 9-12 are designed to help at-risk students make a smooth, successful transition from high school to the world of work and will allow students to earn elective credits toward graduation requirements.

Grades 9-12 Course Codes: Career and Technical Supplementary Services. North Dakota Department of Public Instruction,  July 2013. http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/resource/corscode/2014pdf/specneeds14.pdf. [Accessed December 19, 2013.]

Ohio Extended learning opportunities are defined as a variety of initiatives that ensure students have access to a diverse array of content-rich, high-quality opportunities that expand the time they are actively engaged in learning. These opportunities provide students with structured opportunities for academic support and enrichment, extra-curricular activities, service-learning, mentoring, recreation, character education, and other developmental activities.

Ohio Admin. Code 3301-35-01
No The Ohio Career Field Initiative is a series of academic and technical, career-focused course work and other learning experiences leading to a career specialty and employment in a career field. Pathways and program areas facilitate a seamless transition from high school to postsecondary education and from postsecondary education to the workplace. High school career pathways and program areas should encompass, among other things, instructional enhancements, such as experiential and authentic learning opportunities (e.g., work-based learning, mentorships, internships).

Ohio Career Field Initiative. Ohio Department of Education, October 2008. https://education.ohio.gov/getattachment/Topics/Career-Tech/Career-Fields/CFInit.pdf.aspx. [Accessed December 19, 2013.]
Oklahoma No Youth community service activities are defined as volunteer activities performed by secondary school students through a youth community service program that meet the needs of others in the school or community and are designed to enhance the student's personal growth, career exploration, understanding of community and citizenship, social science skills, and communication skills.

Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 70, § 11-108.1
Youth community service activities are defined as volunteer activities performed by secondary school students through a youth community service program that meet the needs of others in the school or community and are designed to enhance the student's personal growth, career exploration, understanding of community and citizenship, social science skills, and communication skills.

Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 70, § 11-108.1
Oregon Service learning is one of the activities identified as a career-related learning experience that connects academic content and career-related learning to real life applications to extend, reinforce, and support classroom learning.

Or. Admin. R. 581-022-0102
No
Service learning is one of the activities identified as a career-related learning experience that connects academic content and career-related learning to real life applications to extend, reinforce, and support classroom learning.

Or. Admin. R. 581-022-0102
Pennsylvania No No Out-of-school programs are defined, for purposes of student attendance, as programs conducted off school grounds, such as cooperative education, job shadowing, internships, community exploration, registered apprenticeships, and community service-learning designed to provide students with real world experiences under the general supervision of professional school staff.

22 Pa. Code § 11.8


The academic standards for career education and work, career awareness and preparation include, for 11th grade, that students evaluate school-based opportunities for career awareness and preparation such as, among other things, community service. In addition, in the career acquisition standard for 5th and 8th grade, students are required to identify individualized career portfolio components such as community service involvement and projects.

Career Education and Work Standards. Pennsylvania Department of Education, July 2006. http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/state_academic_standards/19721. [Accessed December 20, 2013.]

Rhode Island School districts are required to provide all students with multiple learning opportunities that support meeting proficiency. Among the opportunities that must be provided, districts must establish pathways that represent a set of courses and other programs within its guaranteed and viable comprehensive course of study and that provide students with the means to meet their academic and career goals. These pathways must include Advanced Placement courses, career and technical programs, dual enrollment, and opportunities for extended applied learning such as internships, job shadowing, and community service learning.

R.I. Code R. 21 2 53


School districts are required to develop a system that provides a broad array of high quality expanded learning opportunities that will that strengthen school engagement, support academic success, and expand all students' educational experiences. These opportunities must address diverse learning needs and capabilities, individual interests, connections to the community, and engagement in activities beyond what is provided during the regular school day. Among the opportunities districts must provide are opportunities for experiential learning, community service, and skill building.

R.I. Code R. 21 2 53
The legislature recognizes the importance of community service learning as a means of enhancing life in the community and as a way of enlightening young people about the needs of others, noting that when young people are led through teaching and example, the likelihood of their becoming productive citizens in society is increased a thousandfold.

R.I. Gen. Laws Ann. § 16-22-21


Service learning is defined as a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities for purposes of the grade span expectations for civics and government.

R.I. Code R. 21 2 48 app. A
School districts are required to provide all students with multiple learning opportunities that support meeting proficiency. Among the opportunities that must be provided, districts must establish pathways that represent a set of courses and other programs within its guaranteed and viable comprehensive course of study and that provide students with the means to meet their academic and career goals. These pathways must include Advanced Placement courses, career and technical programs, dual enrollment, and opportunities for extended applied learning such as internships, job shadowing, and community service learning.

R.I. Code R. 21 2 53
South Carolina No No An individual graduation plan is a student-specific educational plan detailing the courses necessary for the student to prepare for graduation and to successfully transition into the workforce or postsecondary education. An individual graduation plan must include experience-based, career-oriented learning experiences including internships, apprenticeships, mentoring, co-op education, and service learning.

S.C. Code Ann. § 59-59-140
South Dakota No For purposes of accreditation and school improvement, service learning is defined as a meaningful and relevant activity that addresses needs important to the community being served.

S.D. Admin. R. 24:43:01:01
No
Tennessee No
In the curriculum standards for the course “Success Skills through Service Learning,” service-learning is defined as a form of experiential learning where students develop knowledge and critical
thinking skills while addressing genuine community needs. Mastering the standards will enable students to develop personal integrity based on positive values, to learn respect and responsibility, and to learn citizenship in schools and community.

Curriculum Standards. Tennessee Department of Education.  http://www.tn.gov/education/ci/service/index.shtml.[Accessed December 26, 2013.]


In the context of work-based learning activities, service learning is defined as an instructional method that combines community service with a structured school-based opportunity for reflection about that service, emphasizing the connections between service experiences and academic learning. Work-based learning policies specify that students benefit from service learning by acquiring skills and knowledge, realizing personal satisfaction, and learning civic responsibility, while the community benefits by having a local need addressed.

Work-Based Learning Policies, Procedures, and Resources. Tennessee Department of Education, April 2013.  http://www.tennessee.gov/education/cte/wb/doc/WorkBasedLearningPoliciesApril2013.pdf. [Accessed December 26, 2013.]

Local boards of education are authorized to implement programs for school-based enterprises, studios, laboratories, and service learning to provide work-based learning experiences in which students learn through work completed at the school site or in the community.

Tenn. Comp. R. & Regs. 0520-01-03-.06
Texas No No No
Utah Work-based learning is a teaching strategy that enhances classroom learning.

CTE Introduction Program. Utah Department of Education, May 2010. http://www.schools.utah.gov/cte/cteintro_wbl.html. [Accessed December 26, 2013.]


Academic service learning experience creates engagement for students by establishing a sense of ownership in the classroom, school, and their community. Quality academic service learning brings the classroom to everyday authentic experiences bolstering core content, while developing critical thinking, problem solving, and communication skills. This engagement increases academic achievement and lowering drop-out rates.

Teaching and Learning – Life Skills. Utah Department of Education. http://www.schools.utah.gov/CURR/lifeskills/Academic-Service-Learning.aspx. [Accessed December 26, 2013.]

For purposes of the Work-Based Learning Program, service learning is defined as combining community service with classroom instruction and focusing on critical, reflective thinking as well as personal and civic responsibility. Service learning is identified as a way to offer youth a chance to solve problems and become involved in the community.

Work-Based Learning Manual – Glossary of Terms. Utah Department of Education, October 2010.  http://www.schools.utah.gov/cte/wbl_manual_glossary.html. [Accessed December 26, 2013.]
A minimum of six work-based learning experiences is designated during the career and technical education intro year to provide career awareness and exploration experiences that support and sustain classroom instruction and curriculum. Work-based learning experiences should reflect a variety of career fields for students to explore their own interests and apply their self-discovery to the world of work. Work-based learning is a teaching strategy that enhances classroom learning.

CTE Introduction Program. Utah Department of Education, May 2010.  http://www.schools.utah.gov/cte/cteintro_wbl.html. [Accessed December 26, 2013.]
Vermont No No No
Virginia No The history and social science standards in civics and economics include a requirement that students demonstrate knowledge of personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life by, among other things, practicing service to the school and local community. The standard for Virginia and U.S. government requires that students understand that thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized by, among other things, performing public service.

History and Social Science Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools. Board of Education, Commonwealth of Virginia, January 2008. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/sol/standards_docs/history_socialscience/next_version/stds_all_history.pdf. [Accessed December 27, 2013.]

No
Washington No No No
West Virginia For purposes of dropout prevention and recovery, state law specifies that research identifies a number of effective strategies for engaging students that have the most positive impact on improving high school graduation rates. Among the identified strategies are school-community collaboration, service learning opportunities, and individualized instruction and career and technical education.

W. Va. Code Ann. § 18-5B-11


Providing structured opportunities for students to participate in credit and noncredit learning activities outside the school is identified as a practice that increases academic expectations for students to help them succeed. These opportunities are an extension of the school-based program of study for the student and include a number of activities such as job shadowing, community service, entrepreneurship development, mentoring, internships, apprenticeships, school-based enterprises in partnership with the private sector, and other cooperative learning experiences connected to student education majors and school-based instructional programs.

W. Va. Code Ann. § 18-2E-8
No Students in grades 9-12 must be provided structured, on-going experiences for career exploration, decision making, and career preparation. All students must participate in an experiential learning experience at some time in grades 9-12. Experiential learning is defined as structured work-based, services-based, community-based, or research-based learning experiences.

W. Va. Code R. § 126-42-5
W. Va. Code R. § 126-42-13
Wisconsin No No No
Wyoming No No No


This database will be updated as we learn of policy changes. If you have comments about the information presented or the database, please contact Paul Baumann at pbaumann@ecs.org or 303.299.3608. Creation of this database was made possible in part through the support of the State Farm Companies Foundation.

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Helping State Leaders Shape Education Policy