Student Accountability Initiatives
Education Commission of the States • 700 Broadway, Suite 810 • Denver, CO 80203-3442 • 303.299.3600 • Fax: 303.296.8332 • www.ecs.org

Student Accountability Initiatives

Student accountability initiatives refer to policies that states have enacted to encourage students and parents to become more engaged in education. These initiatives typically hold students and parents accountable for poor academic performance and/or poor attendance. Consequences range from the loss of the student's driving privileges to criminal penalties for parents who fail to send their children to school. To see a synopsis of which states have enacted the policies listed below, please see the 2007 ECS StateNote titled "Student Accountability Initiatives." For a more detailed state-by-state breakdown, continue below.

The student accountability database is designed to allow state policymakers to consider the rationale behind various accountability initiatives, determine the policies in place in their state and elsewhere, and consider policy options used in other states that may benefit students and schools in their own state.

This database includes information on:

1. States with no-pass, no-drive policies:

Why does it matter? Students need to know that attendance matters; a driver's license can serve as a meaningful incentive to attend school.

No-pass, no-drive is a policy in which a student's driver's license is revoked typically because of poor attendance (habitual truancy) and/or poor academic performance. Currently, 27 states have such policies.

2. States with no-pass, no-play policies:

Why does it matter? The desire to participate in sports and other activities can play a strong role in encouraging attendance and engagement in learning.

No-pass, no-play is a policy in which a student's eligibility to participate in extracurricular activities and interscholastic sports is conditioned upon good academic standing and/or regular attendance. Sixteen states have such policies.

3. States with learnfare policies:

Why does it matter? Welfare benefits can serve as a meaningful incentive for students to attend school - and for parents to ensure their children attend school.

Learnfare refers to policies in which eligibility for public assistance grants to minor parents or dependents of grant recipients is conditioned upon the minor parent or dependent's attendance and/or progress towards graduation at school. Thirty-eight states have "learnfare" policies.

4. States with upper compulsory age of 18:

Why does it matter? Parents and students need to know that attendance matters, and that there are consequences to not attending school.

These laws relate to the upper age states set for mandatory student attendance, which are typically from 16-18 years of age. Twenty states have set 18 as the upper compulsory age. Parents and guardians who fail to send their compulsory age children to school typically face criminal penalties

5. Upper statutory age laws:

Why does it matter? Students who drop out or are otherwise disengaged from learning, but who later have a change of heart, benefit from being allowed to complete the coursework required for a diploma.

These laws relate to the maximum age in which the state is obligated to pay for a student's education (these ages do not refer to students with disabilities; however, for states with no upper statutory age laws, the upper statutory age for students with disabilities is given). The ages range from 19 to no upper limit. Ten states do not have upper statutory age laws: Seven have not addressed the policy in statute and three have indicated through policy that there is no upper age limit.

Methodology: This information was collected from state statutes, rules and regulations, and state education agencies, and will be updated as new policies and programs are enacted.

Last updated: July 30, 2007

Please contact Michael Colasanti at 303.299.3672 or mcolasanti@ecs.org with questions or comments about this database.

Alabama
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: For students under 19, the state conditions the issuance of a driver's license on school enrollment and attendance.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Eligibility for extracurricular activities is determined by the student's grades.
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
Sources No-pass, no drive: ALA. CODE § 16-28-40
No-pass, no-play: ALA. ADMIN. CODE r. 290-3-1-.02(18)
Compulsory age of 18:
ALA. CODE § 16-28-3
Upper statutory age: ALA. ADMIN. CODE r. 290-8-9-.06

Alaska
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Applicants for assistance who are under 18 must maintain attendance at high school until they receive a diploma or GED. Cash assistance will be reduced for minor parents who do not satisfy this requirement.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources Learnfare: ALASKA STAT. § 47.27.027(a)(3),(b)
Compulsory age of 18: ALASKA STAT. § 14.30.010(a)
Upper statutory age: ALASKA STAT. § 14.03.070

American Samoa
Student Accountability Initiatives

Arizona
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Eligibility for extracurricular activities is determined by earning a passing grade in each course enrolled and satisfactory progress towards promotion/graduation.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Parents who apply for or receive assistance on behalf of their child, if between six and 16, must ensure that the child is enrolled in and attending school.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-play: ARIZ. ADMIN. CODE R7-2-808(2)
Learnfare: ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 46-292(P)
Compulsory age of 18: ARIZ. REV. STAT. § 15-802(A)
Upper statutory age: ARIZ. CONST. ART. XI, § 6

Arkansas
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Students who have excessive absences or have dropped out will have their licenses revoked.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor parent applying for or receiving aid must regularly attend school and make satisfactory progress towards completion as a condition of eligibility.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-18-222(b)(2)
Learnfare: 016 20 CARR 002
Compulsory age of 18: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-18-201(a)
Upper statutory age: ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-18-202(b)(1)

California
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A student who is a habitual truant may have his/her driving privileges revoked.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Students must maintain satisfactory educational progress to be eligible to participate in extracurricular activities.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: All children under 16 in an assistance unit must regularly attend school or the adults in the assistance unit will not be considered when computing the grant of the family.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: CAL. VEH. CODE § 13202.7
No-pass, no-play: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 35160.5
Learnfare: CAL. WEL. & INST. CODE § 11253.5
Compulsory age of 18: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 48200
Upper statutory age: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 46300.1

Colorado
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Families receiving assistance under the Colorado works program who have dependent children must ensure that they are in regular attendance at school.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: COLO. REV. STAT. § 26-2-706(1)
Compulsory age of 18: COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-33-104(1)
Upper statutory age: COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-1-102(1)

Connecticut
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor parent without a high school diploma or its equivalent, who is not married and has a child who is at least twelve weeks of age is ineligible for temporary family assistance unless such parent is participating in educational activities directed toward the attainment of a high school diploma or its equivalent.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 17b-688g
Compulsory age of 18: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-184
Upper statutory age: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-186(a)

Delaware
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A habitually truant student may have his/her driver's permit or license revoked.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14, § 2730(c)(6)-(7)
Compulsory age of 18: DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14, § 2702(a)(1)
Upper statutory age: DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 14, § 202(a)

District of Columbia
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: A pregnant or parenting teen who is unwed and has not completed high school must regularly attend school to be eligible for federally-funded TANF benefits.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age Adult students may receive educational services as long as they meet all other eligibility criteria.
Sources Learnfare: D.C. CODE ANN. § 4-205.65
Compulsory age of 18: D.C. CODE ANN. § 38-202(a)
Upper statutory age: D.C. MUN. REGS. tit. 5, § 2000.3

Florida
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must fulfill school attendance requirements to be eligible to drive.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Students must have a GPA above 2.0 and must maintain satisfactory conduct to be eligible to participate in interscholastic extracurricular activities.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: If a participant's child or if the participant is a teen and is habitually truant or drops out, the state will reduce the temporary cash assistance that is otherwise provided.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
Sources No-pass, no-drive: FLA. STAT. ch. 322.091
No-pass, no-play: FLA. STAT. ch. 1006.15(3)
Learnfare: FLA. STAT. ch. 414.1251; FLA. ADMIN. CODE ANN. r. 65A-4.2131
Compulsory age of 18: FLA. STAT. ch. 1003.21
Upper statutory age: FLA. ADMIN. CODE ANN. r. 6A-6.0331

Georgia
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or be enrolled in school to receive a driver's license.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: A teenager who is included in a parent's TANF grant must attend school or will be removed from the grant the next pay period.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: GA. CODE ANN. § 40-5-22(a.1)
Learnfare: GA. CODE ANN. § 49-4-192; GA. COMP. R. & REGS. r. 290-2-28-.18
Compulsory age of 18: GA. CODE ANN. § 20-2-690.1(a)
Upper statutory age: GA. CODE ANN. § 20-2-150(a)

Guam

Hawaii
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Participants in Hawaii's First-to-Work program who are custodial parents under 20 are required to participate in educational activities to be eligible.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 20.
Sources Learnfare: WCHR 17-684
Compulsory age of 18: HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-1132(a)
Upper statutory age: HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-101

Idaho
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must hold a high school diploma or its equivalent or be enrolled in school to receive a driver's license.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: IDAHO CODE § 49-303A
Compulsory age of 18:
IDAHO CODE § 33-202
Upper statutory age: IDAHO CODE § 33-201

Illinois
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A graduated driver's license will not be issued to minors (who are not emancipated) unless they have either graduated from high school (or obtained a GED), enrolled in a course leading to a GED certificate or enrolled in an elementary or secondary school or college or university in the state. Students who have been expelled also face revocation of their driving privileges.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Students must maintain a minimum GPA to be eligible for extracurricular activities.
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/26-3a, 625 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/6-107(b-1)
No-pass, no-play: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/10-20.30
Compulsory age of 18: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/26-1
Upper statutory age: 105 ILL. COMP. STAT. 5/10-20.12

Indiana
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A driver's license can be withheld if the student is habitually truant, under a second suspension, is expelled or has dropped out.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Recipients and children of recipients of assistance from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) must attend school and have less than three unexcused absences if they are of compulsory age or have not graduated from high school or received a GED.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 22 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: IND. CODE §§ 9-24-2-1(a), 20-33-2-11(a)
Learnfare:
IND. CODE § 12-14-2-17
Compulsory age of 18: IND. CODE § 20-33-2-6
Upper statutory age: IND. CODE § 20-21-1-6

Iowa
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Anyone under the age of 18 who does not attend school may not receive a driver's license.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: To be eligible to participate in interscholastic competition, students must receive credit in at least four subjects and must make adequate progress toward graduation requirements at the end of each grading period.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Parents who are also a minors and are participating in the Family Investment Program must have their high school diploma or GED, or be enrolled full-time in school to be eligible.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: IOWA CODE § 299.1B
No-pass, no-play: IOWA ADMIN. CODE r. 281-36.15(2)(c)
Learnfare: IOWA CODE § 239B.10(4)
Compulsory age of 18: IOWA CODE § 299.1A
Upper statutory age: IOWA CODE § 282.6

Kansas
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Students who violate certain school safety measures (possession of a weapon or controlled substance, inflicting serious injury to others) have their driving privileges revoked for one year.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Teen parents who are not married and who have not received a high school diploma or GED, or who are not working towards a high school diploma or GED, are not eligible for temporary assistance.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age No upper statutory age
Sources No-pass, no-drive: KAN. STAT. ANN. § 72-89c02
Learnfare:
KAN. ADMIN. REGS. 30-4-70(f)
Compulsory age of 18: KAN. STAT. ANN. § 72-1111(a)

Kentucky
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Students age 16 and 17 have their licenses revoked for at least one semester if student does not pass four courses in preceding semester or if the student drops out.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Student participation in extracurricular activities is based on academic qualifications and attendance requirements.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Eligibility for public assistance for needy children is conditioned upon their regular attendance at school.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 159.051
No-pass, no-play: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 160.345(2)(h)(i)(8)
Learnfare: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 205.200(3)
Compulsory age of 18: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 159.010(1)
Upper statutory age: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 158.100

Louisiana
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A suspension or expulsion from school (for 10 or more consecutive days) results in a revocation of a student's driver's license or his/her ability to obtain one.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: To participate in extracurricular activities and interscholastic sports, all students must meet the eligibility requirements of the Louisiana High School Athletic Association which requires that students must pass at least five subjects and earn a minimum 1.5 GPA each semester.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: To be eligible to receive aid, minor parents without a high school diploma or GED must attend classes designed to obtain a diploma or GED.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 32:431
No-pass, no-play: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:176(C); Louisiana High School Athletic Association Eligibility Guidelines (see "enrollment" and "scholastic" sections)
Learnfare: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 46:231.3(B)(2)
Compulsory age of 18: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:221(A)(1)
Upper statutory age: LA. REV. STAT. ANN. § 17:221.3

Maine
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Parents under 20 who are receiving TANF benefits and do not have a high school diploma or GED must participate in the ASPIRE-TANF program and attend classes to complete high school.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources Learnfare: ME. REV. STAT. ANN. tit. 22, § 3763(3)
Compulsory age of 18: ME. REV. STAT. ANN. tit. 20-A, § 3271(1)
Upper statutory age: ME. REV. STAT. ANN. tit. 20-A, § 201(1)

Maryland
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Each local school system is required to establish standards of participation which assure that students involved in interscholastic athletics are making satisfactory progress toward graduation.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Children under 19 in the Family Investment Program must be enrolled full time in a secondary school or its equivalent to be eligible for aid.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-play: MD. REGS. CODE. tit. 13A, § 06.03.02
Learnfare: MD. REGS. CODE. tit. 7, § 07.03.03.07(C)
Compulsory age of 18: MD. CODE ANN., EDUC. § 7-301(a)(1)
Upper statutory age: MD. CODE ANN., EDUC. § 7-101(a)

Massachusetts
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: A parent applying for transitional aid for a dependent under 14 must verify that the child is regularly attending school.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is set by the local school board
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: MASS. REGS. CODE tit. 106, § 203.900
Compulsory age of 18: MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 76, § 1
Upper statutory age: MASS. GEN. LAWS ch. 71B, § 1

Michigan
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Minor parents receiving family independence assistance must attend school until completion (receipt of diploma).
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources Learnfare: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 400.57e(1)(b)
Compulsory age of 18: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 380.1561(1)
Upper statutory age: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 388.1606(4)(l)

Minnesota
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Compulsory age of 18: MINN. STAT. § 120A.22(5)(a)
Upper statutory age: MINN. STAT. § 120A.20(1)(a)

Mississippi
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must be enrolled in school and making satisfactory progress to obtain a driver's license.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: TANF recipients who are under 20 must have a high school diploma or must be working towards a high school diploma. Also, compulsory aged children who are TANF recipients must meet school attendance requirements for continued eligibility.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: MISS. CODE ANN. § 63-1-9(1)(g)
Learnfare: MISS. CODE ANN. § 43-17-5(4)
Compulsory age of 18: MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-13-91(2)(f)
Upper statutory age: MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-45-1

Missouri
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: For children 18 and under, eligibility for TANF is determined, in part, by their continued enrollment in school.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is determined by the local school district
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 13, § 40-2.310(8)(A)
Compulsory age of 18: MO. REV. STAT. § 167.031(1)
Upper statutory age: MO. REV. STAT. § 160.051(1)

Montana
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 19 years
Sources Compulsory age of 18: MONT. CODE ANN. § 20-5-102(1)(a)
Upper statutory age: MONT. CODE ANN. § 20-1-101(16)

Nebraska
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Cash assistance to families with children under 16 may be reduced if the children do not regularly attend school.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-play: NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-258
Learnfare: NEB. REV. STAT. §68-1724(2)(c)
Compulsory age of 18: NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-201(1)(b)
Upper statutory age: NEB. CONST. ART. VII, § 1

Nevada
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Minors who are adjudicated as habitual truants for the first time have their driver's license suspended for up to six months. A second adjudication results in a suspension of up to one year.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: For students who participate in a sanctioned sport, they must enroll in a course of at least two units of credit and regularly attend a school. Students must successfully complete a course of at least two units of credit for the immediately preceding semester. If they fail to complete successfully the course for that semester, they are ineligible to participate in a sanctioned sport for one semester.
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: NEV. REV. STAT. 62E.430(1)(a)(2),(1)(b)(2)
No-pass, no-play: NEV. ADMIN. CODE ch. 386, § 802
Compulsory age of 18: NEV. REV. STAT. 392.040(1)
Upper statutory age: NEV. ADMIN. CODE ch. 387, § 345(5)

New Hampshire
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Compulsory age of 18: N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 193:1(I)
Upper statutory age: N.H. REV. STAT. ANN. § 189:1-a

New Jersey
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Dependent children who are 16 and older must attend school to continue receiving assistance benefits.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources No-pass, no-play: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:36-37(c); New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association eligibility guidelines (see "credits" pg. 4-5)
Learnfare: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 44:10-63(a)(4)
Compulsory age of 18: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:38-25
Upper statutory age: N.J. STAT. ANN. § 18A:38-1

New Mexico
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Students classified as habitual truants may have their driving privileges revoked.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Students must maintain a 2.0 GPA and cannot miss more than 15 days at school to be eligible to participate in interscholastic extracurricular activities.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Children between 6 and 17 who are in families receiving cash assistance must be enrolled full-time in school. Failure to do so results in the removal of the student's portion of assistance.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-12-7
No-pass, no-play: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-12-2.1
Learnfare: N.M. ADMIN. CODE tit. 8, § 102.420.9
Compulsory age of 18: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-12-2(A)
Upper statutory age: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-1-2(O)

New York
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: A child in grades 1 through 6 who is part of a grant of public assistance must attend school and cannot have more than five unexcused absences or the grant will be reduced by $60 for three consecutive months.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: N.Y. COMP. CODES R. & REGS. tit. 18, § 351.12
Compulsory age of 18: N.Y. EDUC. LAW § 3205(1)(a)
Upper statutory age: N.Y. EDUC. LAW § 3202(1)

North Carolina
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: To obtain a driver's license, a minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent, or a driving eligibility certificate (which requires enrollment in school and progress towards graduation.)
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Students must pass at least 75% of the maximum of possible courses each semester and meet promotion standards established by the district to participate in interscholastic athletic competition.
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: N.C. GEN. STAT. § 20-11(n)
No-pass, no-play: N.C. ADMIN. CODE tit. 16, r. 6E.0202
Compulsory age of 18:
N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-378
Upper statutory age: N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-1

North Dakota
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Compulsory age of 18: N.D. CENT. CODE § 15.1-20-01(1)
Upper statutory age: N.D. CENT. CODE § 15.1-06-01(1)(c)

Ohio
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Minors who withdraw from school or are habitually absent can have their driver's permit or license revoked.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: Students must maintain a minimum GPA and cannot be failing any course to be eligible to participate in interscholastic extracurricular activities.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: A participating student who fails to comply with the attendance requirements two or more times results in a reduction of cash assistance payments.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 4510.32
No-pass, no-play: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3313.535
Learnfare: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 5107.28
Compulsory age of 18: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3321.01(A)(1)
Upper statutory age: OHIO REV. CODE ANN. § 3313.64(F)(1)

Oklahoma
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must be enrolled in school or have a high school diploma to receive a driver's license.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Each child in a family receiving TANF between kindergarten age and 18 must attend school. Failure to do so results in a 25% reduction penalty.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: OKLA. STAT. tit. 47, § 6-107.3
Learnfare:
OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 340:10-13-1
Compulsory age of 18: OKLA. STAT. tit. 70, § 10-105(A),(B) 
Upper statutory age: OKLA. STAT. tit. 70, § 1-114(A)

Oregon
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A school district may establish a policy to revoke a student's driving privileges if expelled for a weapons possession at school or if suspended at least twice for possession of controlled substances or violent behavior while at school.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: OR. REV. STAT. § 339.254
Compulsory age of 18:
OR. REV. STAT. § 339.010
Upper statutory age: OR. REV. STAT. § 339.115(2)

Pennsylvania
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Children between eight and 18 are required to attend school without attendance problems for continued eligibility for aid under AFDC.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 62, § 464
Compulsory age of 18: PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 24, § 13-1326
Upper statutory age: PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 24, § 13-1301

Puerto Rico
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Children under 18 in a family receiving assistance must attend school to continue to be eligible.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, there is no upper compulsory age
Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
Sources Learnfare: 8 P.R. LAWS ANN. § 14a
Compulsory age of 18: 18 P.R. LAWS ANN. § 2
Upper statutory age: 18 P.R. LAWS ANN. § 1352

Rhode Island
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Truant students may have their driving privileges revoked.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Parents under 20 who are receiving cash assistance and who do not have a high school diploma or GED must regularly attend a program to obtain a diploma or GED.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.
Sources No-pass, no-drive: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 14-1-32(5)
Learnfare:
R.I. GEN. LAWS § 40-5.1-9(c)(2)(i)(G)
Compulsory age of 18: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 16-19-1(a)
Upper statutory age: R.I. CODE R. 08-010-002 § 300.7(a)(1)

South Carolina
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Students younger than 17 must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled and attending school in order to receive a driver's license.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: To participate in interscholastic activities, students in grades nine through twelve must achieve an overall passing average and either pass at least four academic courses, including each unit the student takes that is required for graduation or pass a total of five academic courses.
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Welfare recipients under the age of eighteen must be enrolled and maintain satisfactory attendance, as defined by the department of education, as a condition of eligibility for benefits.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: S.C. CODE ANN. § 56-1-176
No-pass, no-play: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-39-160
Learnfare: S.C. CODE ANN. § 43-5-1215
Compulsory age of 18: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-65-10(A)
Upper statutory age: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-63-20

South Dakota
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-play: S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-36-4; South Dakota High School Activities Association eligibility rules (see pg. 12)
Compulsory age of 18:
S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-27-1
Upper statutory age: S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-28-1.1

Tennessee
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled and making satisfactory progress in school to receive a driver's license. Also, any students who have committed an offense resulting in a mandatory one year suspension or expulsion from school may have their driving privileges revoked for up to two years or until they turn 18.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Children in families receiving temporary assistance must attend school (including kindergarten) for continued eligibility.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 17
Upper statutory age Local district determines eligibility.
Sources No-pass, no-drive: TENN. CODE ANN. §§ 49-6-3017, 55-50-515
Learnfare: TENN. CODE ANN. § 71-3-154(h)(2)(B)(i)
Compulsory age of 18: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-3001(c)
Upper statutory age: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-6-403(d)

Texas
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled in school to receive a driver's license.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: To be eligible to participate in extracurricular activities, students must maintain a 70% in all non-honors or advanced classes.
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 26 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: TEX. TRANSP. CODE ANN. § 521.204(a)(3)
No-pass, no-play: TEX. EDUC. CODE ANN. § 33.081(c)
Compulsory age of 18:
TEX. EDUC. CODE ANN. § 25.085(b)
Upper statutory age: TEX. EDUC. CODE ANN. § 25.001(a)

Utah
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Minor parents who are single and who do not have a high school diploma must attend school 20 hours per week to be eligible for cash assistance.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 22 years.
Sources Learnfare: UTAH CODE ANN. § 35A-3-307(2)(d)(i)
Compulsory age of 18: UTAH CODE ANN. § 53A-11-101(d)
Upper statutory age: UTAH CODE ANN. § 53A-15-301(1)(a)

Vermont
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Parents under 18 must attend school or appropriate alternative education activities for eligibility for aid.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age No upper statutory age
Sources Learnfare: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 33, § 1103(e)(1)
Compulsory age of 18: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 16, § 1121
Upper statutory age: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 16, § 828

Virginia
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Evidence of compliance with the state's compulsory school attendance laws must be presented for a minor to obtain a driver's license.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: In order to be eligible for TANF, minor parents must be in compliance with the school's compulsory attendance requirements. Failure to attend will result in the loss of benefits.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: VA. CODE ANN. § 46.2-334(4)
Learnfare: VA. CODE ANN. § 63.2-606
Compulsory age of 18: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-254(A)
Upper statutory age: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-1

Virgin Islands
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No

No Pass No Play No

Learnfare No

State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16

Upper statutory age Not in statute; however, for students with disabilities, the upper statutory age is 21 years.

Sources Compulsory age of 18: 17 V.I. CODE ANN. § 82
Upper statutory age: 17 V.I. CODE ANN. § 287(a)


Washington
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Children under 19 receiving TANF benefits must regularly attend school and must be making satisfactory progress towards completion.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: WASH. ADMIN. CODE § 388-404-0005(1)(b)
Compulsory age of 18: WASH. REV. CODE § 28A.225.010(1)
Upper statutory age: WASH. REV. CODE § 28A.225.160

West Virginia
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: A minor must have a high school diploma or its equivalent or must be enrolled and making progress in school.
No Pass No Play Yes
Notes/Citation: A student is required to do passing work in the equivalent of at least 20 periods (four subjects with full credit toward graduation) per week to be eligible to participate in athletics. Failure to earn passing marks in four full credit subjects during a semester shall render a student ineligible for the following semester.
Learnfare No
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: W. VA. CODE § 18-8-11(a)
No-pass, no-play: W. VA. CODE ST. R. § 127-2-6
Compulsory age of 18:
W. VA. CODE § 18-8-1(a)
Upper statutory age: W. VA. CODE § 18-5-15(b)

Wisconsin
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive Yes
Notes/Citation: Students who drop out of high school may have their driver's licenses revoked.
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: All teenagers who have not graduated from high school and are included in an assistance grant must attend school to meet the eligibility requirements.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age Yes
Upper statutory age 20 years
Sources No-pass, no-drive: WIS. STAT. § 118.163(2m)(a)
Learnfare:
WIS. STAT. § 49.26; WIS. ADMIN. CODE § 11.195
Compulsory age of 18: WIS. STAT. § 118.15(1)(a)
Upper statutory age: WIS. CONST. ART. X, § 3

Wyoming
Student Accountability Initiatives
No Pass No Drive No
No Pass No Play No
Learnfare Yes
Notes/Citation: Minors who have completed the eighth grade or who are 16 must attend high school for the family to receive their monthly performance payment.
State has set 18 as upper compulsory school age No, the upper compulsory age is 16
Upper statutory age 21 years
Sources Learnfare: WYO. STAT. ANN. § 42-2-202(d)(ii)
Compulsory age of 18: WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-4-102(a)
Upper statutory age: WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-4-301

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