Career/Technical Education - All State Profiles
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Career/Technical Education - All State Profiles

The purpose of career and technical education (CTE) is to integrate workplace competencies and career and technical education with core academic subjects. In many instances, CTE programs have been limited to a "career awareness" focus--providing students with a wide range of knowledge with comparatively little depth. While career awareness programs provide exposure to options, learning about an industry is not the equivalent of learning the skills necessary to do a job. In the best of worlds, career preparation follows career awareness.

The 2006 reauthorization of the Carl Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act dramatically altered state CTE programs by requiring them to focus on "career preparation" if they receive federal funding under the Perkins Act. These CTE programs seek to teach the academic skills--and the application of flexible, adaptive and transferrable skills--preparing students for the workforce while simultaneously giving them the foundation for a successful college career.

This database includes information on:

1. Title of program. This data point indicates whether a state has changed the name of its program from "vocational education" to "career and technical education" or "professional and technical education" to reflect greater rigor and updated standards and curricula. Three states maintain "vocational" as part of the name of the career and technical education program.

2. Governing body. A "governing body" is charged with ultimate managerial control, fiscal and legal responsibility for the operation of a program. Governing bodies normally provide targeted guidance for high school, community colleges, and/or four-year institutions--but career and technical education can also bridge education and the workforce. For example, five states have designated their workforce agency as the governing body. Other states might provide governance that facilitates the spanning of two systems (e.g., high school and community college) or the alignment of services across systems. Three states have established a state board for career and technical education charged with governing career and technical education. Five states have charged the state's community colleges or postsecondary system with governing career and technical education. The remaining 38 states have left the governing functions with the state department or the state board of education.

Why does it matter?


Alabama
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Secondary Career/Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Local education agency and the Office of Civil Rights
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriscience
  • Business and Marketing
  • Career Technologies
  • Family and Consumer Science
  • Health Science
  • Technical Education
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: All programs are to meet business/industry standards approved by the department of education. Programs are reviewed by a business/industry team according to their initial approval date. Any program certified by a nationally recognized industry certification process must remain in compliance with the national standards.
Emphasis on Rigor: All programs are required to meet business/industry standards approved by the department of education.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) For certification, the state requires the National Occupational Competency Testing Institute exams for measuring content knowledge.  For a program to be certified, teachers must possess knowledge and skills as prescribed by industry standards and the department of education. Teachers must continually maintain industry certification and/or teacher certification.
Graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Unique features of note The Alabama Department of Education is the only state-level educational agency in the nation to receive certification from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for its business/industry certification (BIC) process, used to certify career and technical education programs for industry compliance.
Sources Governing Body: ALA. ADMIN. CODE r. 290-6-1
Oversight: ALA. CODE 16-37-3, 16-37-4
Required Program: 
ALA. ADMIN. CODE r. 290-3-1-.02
Career Clusters: ALA. ADMIN. CODE r. 290-6-1.11
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
ALA. ADMIN. CODE  290-6-1-.03
Teaching Quality: ALA. ADMIN. CODE 290-6-1-.03
Graduation Requirements: ALA. ADMIN. CODE R. 290-3-1-.02
Unique Features: Alabama Department of Education: Career/Technical Web Site

Alaska
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes. At its December 2007 meeting, the state board of education approved regulations for the Work Ready/College Ready Initiative. Districts must implement the program in the 2009-2010 school year.
Career clusters the state has identified

The state uses the career clusters identified by the U.S. Department of Education.

  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: State has established career and technical education performance standards and competencies by which programs are reviewed for approval.
Certificate of Mastery: Both the state's technical high school system and the comprehensive high school utilize the statewide career and technical education assessment program with assessment instruments developed by the National Occupational Competency Institute.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Statewide Tech Prep program consortium is funded by the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act federal grant from the Alaska Department of Education and Early Development.
Sources Governing Body: ALASKA STAT. § 14.07.020, ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4 § 06, Art. 5
Required Program: ALASKA STAT. § 44.27.020
Quality Control Mechanisms:
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4 §§ 51.200, 51-330
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Alaska CTE - Tech Prep
Unique Features: ALASKA ADMIN. CODE tit. 4 § 04.200

Arizona
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career/Technical Education and Vocational Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

The state has established the following career clusters:

  • Agricultural Education
  • Business Education
  • Family and Consumer Sciences
  • Health Careers Education
  • Industrial Technology Education
  • Marketing Education

 

Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Semiconductor industry
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: In practice, the governing board of a school district provides annually for a self-evaluation of its career and technical education and vocational education programs. The assessment is to be conducted in cooperation with and with assistance from business, industry or labor representatives. The state board of education determines the manner in which the evaluation is conducted.

In 2003-2005, Arizona conducted a comprehensive adaptation and update of its 36 career and technical education programs. Through the process, all programs were reviewed, specific program standards were written and programs were updated to include specific reinforcement of state academic standards. 
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Yes. State policy requires career and technical education teachers to have a standard certificate. In addition to passing scores on the professional knowledge portion of the state's proficiency assessment for secondary teachers there are required hours of courses in subject knowledge and, for the provisional license, a number of hours required of verified experience in the same career and technical education area. 
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Enhanced funding to 1.25 at program satellites. Funding increases to 1.75 at stand-alone campuses constructed solely for career and technical programs.
Sources Title: ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 15-781, 15-910.01
Governing Body: ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 15-783
Oversight: ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 15-783
Required Program: ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 15-790
Career Clusters: Arizona Department of Education, Career and Technical Education
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Ted Davis, Career and Technical Education, Arizona Department of Education
Graduation Requirements: ARIZ. ADMIN. CODE §R7-2-301
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
Career and Technical Education Data Snapshot
Teaching Quality: ARIZ. ADMIN. CODE §R7-2-611
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): AZ TechPrep
Funding Mechanism: ARIZ. REV. STAT. ANN. § 15-910.01; Ted Davis, Career and Technical Education, Arizona Department of Education

Arkansas
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Secondary Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Workforce Education and Career Opportunities
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes, nine units of career and technical education.
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech High tech
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Yes, online assessment tools that have been validated by the appropriate industry.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: Staff conduct audits of 20% of the schools annually
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • All students must complete a career concentration/major/sequence
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes. State's program provides technical preparation in engineering technology, applied science, agriculture, health, business or mechanical, industrial or practical art or trade. Focus is to build student competence in mathematics, science and communications leading to employment placement.
Sources Governing Body: John Davidson, Deputy Director, CTE, Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
Oversight: John Davidson, Deputy Director, CTE, Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
Required Program: CODE ARK. R. 005 22 006.4
Industry Assessment Tool: John Davidson, Deputy Director, CTE, Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
Career Clusters: CODE ARK. r. 172 00 CARR 011
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: John Davidson, Deputy Director, CTE, Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
Graduation Requirements: CODE ARK. R. 005 22 006.4
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
John Davidson, Deputy Director, CTE, Arkansas Department of Workforce Education
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): ARK. CODE ANN. § 6-53-501 through 6-53-505

California
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes, the adopted course of study for grades 7 to 12 must offer courses in Applied Arts and Career Technical Education courses. In addition, the governing board of the local schools must adopt alternative means for pupils to complete the prescribed academic graduation requirements which may include career technical education courses in high school.
Career clusters the state has identified

The California Board of Education identifies 15 industry sectors and 58 pathways. The industry sectors are:

  • Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Financial Services
  • Business and Administrative Services
  • Wholesale/Retail Sales and Services
  • Information Technology
  • Health Services
  • Legal and Protective Services
  • Human Services
  • Education and Training Services
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Construction
  • Logistics, Transportation and Distribution Services
  • Scientific Research and Technical Services
  • Manufacturing
  • Arts and Communication Services
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech No. However, there are specific regional focuses such as biotechnology in the San Diego area and bioscience in the Pasadena/Los Angeles region.
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality The state does not currently have industry specific assessments for all of its career and technical education programs. However, the California Department of Education does encourage qualifying students to take industry assessments and is presently exploring options that are available to incorporate a statewide assessment program.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review: California State University and the University of California established a model uniform set of academic standards for high school career technical courses which high schools are required be in compliance with. Career and technical indicators must be included on annual school report cards.
Certificate of Mastery: None at the state level. However, each of the 74 regional occupation centers and programs in California give a certificate.
Emphasis on Rigor: Participating career and technical education programs must adopt the Model Curriculum Career and Technical Education Standards and Framework.
Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: So-called "S.B. 70" funds (named after the 2006 legislation that created a career and technical education improvement grant program) allow students to participate in business intern partnerships.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) 2007 legislation session enacted S.B. 52 (Chapter 520) requires the Commission on Teacher Credentialing to establish a list of authorized subjects for career technical education teaching credential. The legislation also specifies tests that career and technical education teachers must pass.
Graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.)

Statewide funding is available in the following career and technical education areas:

  • D-1 CTE Facility Bond Grants ($500 million)
  • Regional Occupational Centers and Programs ($485 million)
  • Vocational Agriculture Education Grants ($5 million)
  • Partnership Academy Grants ($23 million)
  • SB 70 Career Technical Education Grants ($53 million)
  • Apprenticeship Program ($18.9 million)
  • CTE Equipment Grant ($12 million)
  • Vocational Student Leadership Funds ($500,000)
Unique features of note Although state does not have a technical diploma or endorsement, any student who has successfully completed a career preparatory program must receive a certificate of completion that supplements a high school diploma.

State board of education approved new voluntary curriculum frameworks for middle and high school in January 2007. The career technical education frameworks show school districts and teachers how to link academic standards with career preparation. The frameworks are based around fifteen growing industries. 

2007 legislation (A.B. 428, Chapter 527) requires each school district serving students in grades 9-12 to provide parents, prior to class registration, written information on career technical education offerings, as defined by the state department of education. Resulting comprehensive state career technical education plan was approved by the state board of education in March 2008.

One effort in the state to improve career and technical education has been to create and support California Partnership Academies. The academies are three-year programs (grades 10-12) structured as a school-within-a-school, with a career theme. Academies incorporate integrated academic and career technical education business partnerships, mentoring and internships through a team-based approach.  The academies' components include rigorous academics with a career focus, a team of teachers where teachers are accountable to each other and active business involvement. The 290 Partnership Academies in the state have better outcomes in every dimension with the largest outcomes for African-American males. 
Sources Title: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 52377
Governing Body: Lloyd McCabe, Office of the Director, Secondary, Postsecondary and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education
Oversight: Lloyd McCabe, Office of the Director, Secondary, Postsecondary and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education
Required Program: CAL. EDUC. CODE §§ 51220, 51228
Career Clusters: Codes and Career Cluster Area
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Lloyd McCabe, Office of the Director, Secondary, Postsecondary and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education
Industry Assessment Tools: Lloyd McCabe, Office of the Director, Secondary, Postsecondary and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
CAL. EDUC. CODE §§ 51220, 51226.1, 66205.5
--Certificate of Mastery: Lloyd McCabe, Office of the Director, Secondary, Postsecondary and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor:  Comprehensive State Career and Technical Education Plan, approved by board of education, March 2008
--Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: Lloyd McCabe, Office of the Director, Secondary, Postsecondary and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education
Teaching Quality: CAL. EDUC CODE § 8006
Graduation Requirements: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 51225.3
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): CAL. EDUC. CODE § 53081, 53082, 53083
Funding Mechanism: Lloyd McCabe, Office of the Director of California Department of Education
Unique Features: CAL. EDUC. CODE § 52336

Colorado
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board for Community Colleges and Occupational Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board for Community Colleges and Occupational Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No
Career clusters the state has identified

Colorado Career Cluster Model is organized by industry sector:

  • Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Business and Public Administration
  • Health Sciences and Public Safety
  • Hospitality, Human Services and Education
  • Skilled Trades and Technical Sciences
  • STEM, Arts, Design and Information Technology 
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) 2008 legislation (H.B. 1079) requires career and technical education funds to be distributed based on actual expenditures by participating school districts, boards of cooperative services and charter schools.
Sources Governing Body: COLO. REV. STAT. § 23-60-102
Oversight: COLO. REV. STAT. § 23-60-102
Required Program:  COLO. REV. STAT. § 22-1-104
Career Clusters: Career Cluster & Plans of Study Implementation Resources
Funding Mechanism: COLO. REV. STAT. § 23-60-104.5

Connecticut
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Office of Workforce Competitiveness
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education, Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Arts and Media
  • Business and Finance
  • Construction: Technologies and Design
  • Education
  • Environmental, Natural Resources and Agriculture
  • Government, Education and Human Services
  • Health and Biosciences
  • Retail, Tourism, Recreation and Entrepreneurship
  • Technologies: Manufacturing, Communications and Repair
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Emphasis on Rigor: Industry advisory committees—which include industry representatives of the specific cluster, with support from the Office of Workforce Competitiveness, regional vocational-technical and regional community-technical college system and the Department of Education—establish specific skills standards, corresponding curriculum and a career ladder for the cluster, which is to be implemented as part of the schools' core curriculum.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes
Sources Oversight: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-4, CONN. AGENCIES REGS. § 10-3a-4
Required Program: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-221a
Career Clusters: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 4-124gg; State Department of Education web site
Quality Control Mechanism
--Emphasis on Rigor:
CONN. GEN. STAT. § 4-124gg
Graduation Requirements: CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-221a
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): CONN. GEN. STAT. § 10-95h

Delaware
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education, Economic and Workforce Development Council, Advisory Council on Career and Technical Education, and Tech-Prep Delaware
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

Delaware offers 15 of the 16 clusters identified by the U.S. Department of Education:

  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law and Public Safety
  • Manufacturing
  • Science, Technology, and Engineering
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Delaware programs will emphasize the integration of academic and technical content and will include a sequence of courses that address the state's academic as well as career and technical education content standards. These programs of study will provide the effective academic and technical preparation necessary for student entry into high-skill, high-wage or high-demand occupations and/or related opportunities in postsecondary education. All students will be held to the graduation requirements which include the completion of rigorous academic courses and a three-credit planned and sequential career pathway. Program emphasis reflects regional labor market needs.
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality State department of education mandates the implementation of career pathway assessments for all career and technical education programs. Industry-specific assessment tools include state licensing tests, national certification tests, postsecondary program advance-placement tests, and tests from the National Occupational Competency Testing Institute.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process:  All local school districts and charter schools that offer state approved career technical education programs must:
  • Have the approval of the department of education before implementing new programs
  • Have adequate funding to support and sustain the instructional program
  • Employ teachers certified in career technical education program areas
  • Make provisions for meeting the unique needs of all students
  • Establish and maintain an active advisory committee, which includes labor and management personnel, to assist in the development and operation of the program
  • Use present and projected labor market information, available from the state's Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, to determine the need for new and continuing career technical education programs
  • Survey local business and industry to determine their occupational needs and the availability of placement and employment opportunities for program completers
  • Organize and financially support career technical student organizations that complement and enrich instruction as integral components of career technical education programs in public schools 
  • Integrate related academic content into individual career technical education courses and guide students through a course selection process that supports the necessary academic preparation required by the student's career path and educational goals
  • Schedule trade and industrial education programs, when offered, for a minimum of two consecutive periods a day or the equivalent, five days a week for two or more years
  • Establish no rules, practices or regulations that interfere with, prohibit or otherwise prevent students from having the opportunity to learn about, enroll in and complete a career technical education program
  • Use equipment and facilties comparable to that used by local business and industry for which the career technical education program is preparing students and
  • Schedule department of education and Delaware Advisory Council on Career and Technical Education Program review and monitoring visits upon request.

Certificate of Mastery: The Delaware Department of Education is mandating the implementation of career pathway assessments for all career and technical education programs. Industry-specific assessment tools include state licensing tests, national certification tests, postsecondary program advanced placement tests, and tests from the National Occupational Competency Testing Institute.

Emphasis on Rigor: Local education agencies must demonstrate how their career and technical education courses are an essential component of a three-credit career and technical education career pathway of pre-planned and sequential courses required for graduation.

Career and technical education programs have active advisory committees with membership reflective of the program and related business and industry within the region that will review and make recommendations to develop, improve and expand access to appropriate technology in career and technical education programs.

Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) State policy requires all teachers to be certified in the field they teach. 
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • All students must complete a career concentration/major/sequence
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes. Tech Prep Delaware provides transition opportunities to all Delaware career and technical education students. Every public high school in the state has at least one articulation agreement. Postsecondary partners include two two-year and eight four-year colleges as well as the Delaware Department of Labor Apprenticeship Program. Tech Prep Delaware actively supports transition from secondary to postsecondary and from two-year programs to four-year programs.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) The Delaware unit count system awards enhanced FTEs based on the number of active career and technical education students and expenses associated with the development, implementation and maintenance of state approved career and technical education programs.
Sources Title: CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-8604
Governing Body: CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-121
Oversight: Amelia E. Hodges, Director of Career and Technical Education and School Climate, Delaware Department of Education
Required Program: CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-100 6.0, 14-505
Career Clusters: Delaware Department of Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-502, CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-525
--Certificate of Mastery: Amelia E. Hodges, Director of Career and Technical Education and School Climate, Delaware Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-525
--Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs:
Teaching Quality: 
CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-523, 14-525, 14-1220
Graduation Requirements: CODE OF DEL. REG. 14-500, 14-505, 14-525
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Delaware Department of Education, Tech Prep Programs
Funding Mechanism: Amelia E. Hodges, Director of Career and Technical Education and School Climate, Delaware Department of Education

District of Columbia
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technology Education
Governing body D.C. Commission for Career and Technical Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Office of Career and Technical Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

D.C. organizes their career clusters into "academies".  The academies are:

  • Arts, Media and Communications
  • Biotechnilogy and Environmental Science
  • Business, Finance and Entreprenship
  • Construction and Design
  • Engineering, Robotics and Manufacturing
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health and Medical Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services, Education and Training
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and Security
  • Transportation
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Emphasis on Rigor: Among the duties of the District Education and Learning Technologies Advancement Council are workforce preparation initiatives. In general, the council is to work with the public schools, public charter schools, appropriate governmental agencies, businesses and other private entities to facilitate the integration of rigorous academic studies with workforce preparation programs in the DC public and public charter schools.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Notes/Citation: Through the Class of 2010, all students are required to complete one unit career/vocational education. Effective with the Class of 2011, students must complete either two units of career/technology education or college-level courses.
Sources Required Program: D.C. MUN. REGS. tit. 5 § 2203
Career Clusters: D.C. Five-Year State Plan for CTE
Quality Control Mechanism
--Emphasis on Rigor: 
D.C. CODE § 38-1806.04
Graduation Requirements: D.C. MUN. REGS. tit. 5 §§ 2202, 2203

Florida
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Professional Education
Governing body Division of Community Colleges and Workforce Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics

 

Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech 2007 legislation creates the State Career and Professional Education Act to improve academic performance and to response to workforce needs. Act requires:
  • A school district to develop strategic plans to address and meet local and regional workforce needs and to establish a career and professional academy
  • Career courses lead to industry certification
  • A specified number of students must achieve certification or college credit for a course to continue
  • Students are able to transfer credits to state university system.
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Yes. The state board of education is to adopt rules for implementing an industry certification process. The rules must establish any necessary procedures for obtaining appropriate business partners and requirements for business and industry involvement in curriculum oversight and equipment procurement. 

Where no national or state certification exists, school districts may establish a local certification in conjunction with the local workforce development board, the chamber or commerce or the Agency for Workforce Innovation.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: The career and professional academies are to be coordinated with the appropriate industry indicating that all components of the program are relevant and appropriate to prepare the student for further education or for employment in that industry.
Certificate of Mastery: With completion of the requirements for high school graduation and the additional requirements for a comprehensive career education program of study, mastery is recognized with a career education certificate on his or her high school diploma.
Emphasis on Rigor: The state board of education established a policy for continual review of courses to ensure sufficient rigor and relevance for workforce skills, postsecondary education, and alignment to state curriculum standards.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • All students must complete a career concentration/major/sequence
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes. A student is eligible for a Florida Gold Seal Vocational Scholars Award if the student meets general eligibility requirements for the Florida Bright Futures Scholarship Program, completes the secondary school portion of a Two-Plus-Two Program or a Tech-Prep program, and meets certain other criteria.

Florida has more than 400 career academies, which are research-based programs integrating a rigorous academic curriculum with a business/industry driven career curriculum. The academies connect high school studies to careers and postsecondary goals using focused career studies that lead to an industry certification, an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Enhanced FTE (1.3) for each student who completes the career and technical education program.
Unique features of note

Florida Ready to Work credential, a career readiness certificate, certifies that a Florida student/jobseeker has the fundamental job skills necessary to succeed on the job.  The program is administered by the department of education in partnership with the Florida agency for workforce innovation.  The assessment which is used is the WorkKeys Assessments.

Legislation requires each district school board to develop, in collaboration with local workforce boards and postsecondary institutions approved to operate in the state, a strategic 5-year plan to address and meet local and regional workforce demands. If involvement of the local workforce board in the strategic plan development is not feasible, the local school board, with the approval of the agency for workforce innovation, is to collaborate with the most appropriate local business leadership board. Two or more school districts may collaborate in the development of the strategic plan and offer a career and professional academy as a joint venture. Plans must describe in detail provisions for efficient transportation of students, maximum use of shared resources, and access to courses through the Florida Virtual School when appropriate. Plans are to be developed by no later than June 30, 2008 and include provisions to have in place at least one operational career and professional academy no later than the beginning of the 2008-2009 school year. In addition, the plan must be based on:

  • Research conducted, using labor projections, to determine the local and regional workforce needs for the next five years
  • Strategies to develop and implement career academies based on the careers determined to be in high demand
  • Maximum use of private-sector facilities and personnel
  • Strategies to ensure instruction is conducted by industry-certified faculty and strategies for maintaining current industry certification as well as recruiting/retaining faculty meeting those standards
  • Alignment to requirements for middle school career exploration and high school redesign
  • Provisions ensuring courses offered are academically rigorous, meet or exceed state-adopted subject area standards, result in attainment of industry certification and result in postsecondary credit
  • Use of eighth grade student achievement data in producing student eligibility criteria which includes opportunities for students who have been unsuccessful in traditional classrooms
  • Strategies to provide sufficient space within academies to meet workforce needs and provide access to all interested and qualified students
  • Strategies to engage juvenile justice students
  • Opportunities for students to earn dual enrollment credit for higher-level career and technical courses
  • Promotion of the state’s Gold Seal Bright Futures Scholarship program
  • Strategies to ensure the review of individualized student plans to include courses that may qualify as substitute courses for graduation requirements and those that might be counted as elective courses
  • Strategies to provide professional development for secondary guidance counselors on the benefits of career and professional academies.

Florida has established Charter Technical Career Centers to promote advances and innovations in workforce preparation and economic development.

Sources Title: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1003.491
Governing Body: Luci Hadi, Chancellor, Division of Workforce Education, Florida Department of Education
Oversight: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1008.43
Required Program: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1001.41
Career Clusters: Florida Department of Education, Workforce Education
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1003.491
Industry Assessment Tools: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1003.492, 1003.493
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1003.491
--Certificate of Mastery: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1003.431
--Emphasis on Rigor: FLA. STAT. ANN. §§ 1003.491 and 1003.492
Graduation Requirements: FLA. STAT. ANN. §§ 1003.428, 1003.429, 1003.43, 1003.491
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): FLA. ANN. STAT. §§ 1007.21, 1007.235, 1009.536
Funding Mechanism: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1003.494
Unique Features: FLA. STAT. ANN. § 1003.491

Georgia
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Career and Technical Education Advisory Commission and the State Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified Georgia's career pathway development is focused around program concentrations:
  • Agriculture (Agriscience Career Pathway)
  • Architecture, Construction, Communications and Transportation (Transportation Logistical Operations Career Pathway)
  • Business and Computer Science (Small Business Development Career Pathway)
  • Computing (Computing Career Pathway)
  • Engineering and Technology (Engineering Career Pathway)
  • Healthcare Science (Therapeutic Services Career Pathway/Nursing Career Specialty)
  • Marketing, Sales and Service (Marketing and Management Career Pathway)
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Sources Governing Body: James Woodard, Director, Career, Technical and Agricultural Education, Georgia Department of Education
Oversight: GA. CODE ANN. § 20-11-91
Required Program: GA. COMP. R. & REGS. r. 160-4-2-.47
Career Clusters: Georgia Standards
Graduation Requirements: GA. COMP. R. & REGS. r. 160-4-2-.47

Hawaii
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified Hawaii's Career Pathway System includes six pathways:
  • Arts and Communication,
  • Business
  • Industrial and Engineering Technology
  • Health
  • Natural Resources
  • Public and Human Services
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Agriculture, Science and Technology
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Both end-of-course and end-of-program study assessment tools are in development.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) State policy requires that all career/technical education candidates possess a baccalaureate degree from a state approved teacher education program prior to teaching. In addition, the department of education is authorized to hire individuals with trade or industry experience to teach in vocational, technical and career pathway programs when the criteria for the issuance of a special permit are met. 
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Notes/Citation: New Citation
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Unique features of note 2007 legislation directs the department of education to establish and administer a career and technical education program. The department's program may include:
  • Pathway programs of study, including but not limited to natural resources, graphic design, computer networking, and management information systems
  • Academies for various focuses of study, including the performing arts, travel, science, technology, engineering and mathematics
  • An agriculture education program
  • Specialized programs, including project EAST (environmental and spatial technology) and
  • Other school activities including robotics.

The department's program may be offered jointly by or in partnership between the department, the University of Hawaii, including its community colleges or other public or private entities.

Sources Title: Hawaii State Board Policy 2103, HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-431.8
Governing Body: Hawaii State Board Policy 1100-3
Oversight: Hawaii State Board Policy 1100-3
Required Program: Hawaii State Board Policies 2103 and 4540
Career Clusters: Hawaii Five-Year Plan for the Administration of Career and Technical Education
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-431.7
Industry Assessment Tools: Carol Shikada, Director-School and Community Leadership Branch, Hawaii Department of Education
Teaching Quality: HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-802
Graduation Requirements: Hawaii State Board Policy 4540
Unique Features: HAW. REV. STAT. § 302A-431.8

Idaho
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Professional-Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education functioning as the State Board for Professional-Technical Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Division of Professional-Technical Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No
Career clusters the state has identified

The state has sixteen career clusters organized into six "super clusters":

  • Agriculture and Natural Resources Super Cluster
    • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Arts and Communication Super Cluster
    • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business and Management Super Cluster
    • Business, Management and Administration
    • Finance
    • Hospitality and Tourism
    • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Engineering and Industrial Systems Super Cluster
    • Architecture and Construction
    • Information Technology
    • Manufacturing
    • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
    • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
  • Health Sciences Super Cluster
    • Health Science
  • Human Resources Super Cluster
    • Education and Training
    • Government and Public Administration
    • Human Services
    • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is one of the state's emphases.
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Department staff assert that industry-specific assessments are made available at the secondary level, but use is left to the decision of the local district.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: A program review process is in place. Program managers visit all new teachers the first year and programs are reviewed on a 3- to 5-year basis.
Emphasis on Rigor: As a component of the state's Quality Initiative, the program review process helps evaluate the rigor of the curriculum. Individuals from industry are included in the design of the curriculum/program and each secondary program is required to have an advisory committee made up of business and industry members.
Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: The division of professional-technical education provides funds for special projects and, in some cases these would be pilot projects. The projects could include business intern partnerships. Currently funded is a school-to-work apprenticeship model at the secondary level.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Teacher applicants must verify technical skills through work experience, certification or testing. Applicants may be determined highly qualified under any one of the following three options:
  • Have 16,000 hours of full-time, successful, recent, gainful employment in the occupation for which certification is requested. Up to 48 months credit can be counted toward the eight years on a month-to-month basis for journeyman training and/or postsecondary training successfully completed as a full-time student in an approved program;
  • Have a bachelor's degree in the specific occupation or related area plus 6,000 hours of full-time, successful, recent, gainful employment in the occupation;
  • Meet one of the following:
    • Have at least journeyman level plus two years of recent, full-time, gainful, related work experience
    • Pass approved state or national certification plus three years of recent, full-time, gainful, related work experience, or
    • Pass approved industry related certification for skill level requirements plus three years of recent, full-time, gainful, related work experience. 
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) The division of professional-technical education provides funding for state approved programs based on the instructor FTE of state approved courses.  This funding is provided on an annual basis. State funding is also provided for professional-technical schools through an average daily attendance model. When funds are available, one-time grants and special projects are funded with state funds.
Sources Title: IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 55.01.01.004
Governing Body: IDAHO CODE § 33-2205, IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 55.01.101, 55.01.03
Oversight: IDAHO CODE § 33-2205, IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 55.01.01.101
Required Program: IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 08.02.03.104.03, 08.02.03.107
Career Clusters: Idaho Career Clusters
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 08.02.03.009
Industry Assessment Tools: Richard Ledington, Director of Research, Idaho Division of Professional-Technical Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
Richard Ledington, Director of Research, Idaho Division of Professional-Technical Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: Richard Ledington, Director of Research, Idaho Division of Professional-Technical Education
--Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: Richard Ledington, Director of Research, Idaho Division of Professional-Technical Education
Teaching Quality: IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 08.02.02.036
Graduation Requirements: IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 08.02.03.104.03, 08.02.03.107
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 08.02.03.009
Funding Mechanism: 
IDAHO ADMIN. CODE (IDAPA) 55.01.03.104-5

Illinois
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Illinois State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Illinois State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes. State law also provides for a tax credit for cooperative secondary school youth vocational programs that are certified as qualifying Tech-Prep programs because the programs prepare students to be technically skilled workers and meet the performance standards of business and industry as well as the admission standards of higher education.

Vocational Academies Act specifies that a school district, in partnership with community colleges, local employers and community-based organizations may establish a vocational academy that is eligible for funding under the Act if the academy meets all of the following requirements:
  • Vocational academy must have a minimum 5-clock-hour day and be under the direct supervision of teachers
  • Vocational academy must be a two-year school within a school program for grades 10 through 12 that is organized around a career theme and operated as a business-education partnership
  • Vocational academy must be a career-oriented program that uses the direct involvement of local employers to provide students with an education and the skills needed for employment
  • Vocational academy must be a standards-based educational program that prepares students both academically and technically for entrance into postsecondary education or careers in a selected field
  • Curriculum of the vocational academy must be based on the Illinois Learning Standards, and work-site training must provide students with learning experiences for entry-level employment in the local job market and lifelong learning skills for higher education. 
Unique features of note To qualify as a related vocational or technical course, the course must contain at least 50% of the content of the required course or graduation requirement for which it is substituted.

2007 Legislation, H.B. 1922, requires the state board of education to develop a secondary-level agricultural science teacher training continuum and to provide incentive funding grants to the agriculture science teacher education programs at four state universities. The legislation stipulates that public community colleges providing an articulated agriculture science teacher education course of study are also eligible for funding.  The legislation also states that program funds may be used for:
  • Teacher education candidate recruitment and retention incentives
  • Having master teachers and practitioners assist with the preparation, coordination, and supervision of student teachers
  • Establishing and delivering professional development experiences for new teachers during their first five years of teaching
  • Professional development for university agriculture education teacher education staff.
Sources Governing Body: Mark Williams, Division Administrator, Career Development Division, Illinois State Board of Education
Oversight: ILL. REV. STAT. 105 § 435/2
Required Program: ILL. COMP.  STAT. 701/25
Careeer Clusters: Mark Williams, Division Administrator, Career Development Division, Illinois State Board of Education
Graduation Requirements: ILL. COMP. STAT. 105 § 5/27-22
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): ILL. COMP. STAT. 105 §§ 5/2-3.115, 433/10, ILL. COMP. STAT. 35 § 5/209
Unique Features: ILL. REV. STAT. 105 §§ 5/27-22, 5/2-3.80a 

Indiana
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career-Technical Education
Governing body State Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education and Department of Workforce Development
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

Not established in state policy. However, in practice the following are identified:

  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Pre-engineering and biomedical sciences
STEM-based careers
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Industry-specific assessment tools are recommended and promoted. An advanced diploma is tied to industry-based certifications. No funds are available to help offset costs.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: An on-site review process is in place.
Certificate of Mastery: No state policy, although some local programs offer local certificates indicating standards/proficiencies mastered.
Emphasis on Rigor: No state policy; however, career and technical education teachers in most districts have completed training in the rigor/relevance rubric. Career and technical education districts are required to have advisory committees and they generally serve as the arbiters of the rigor of career and technical education programs.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) State policy requires all teachers to be certified in the field they teach. An alternative licensing program (occupational specialist) allows for skilled tradesmen without teaching degrees to become certified as career and technical education teachers. Training in classroom management, lesson planning, assessment, etc. is required and provided by the teacher education institutions.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • All students must complete a career concentration/major/sequence
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Indiana's Tech Prep funds are now directed to the state's Career Academies. 
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Indiana provides additional state funding for career and technical education programs based on wage/demand factors multiplied times the number of credits being earned on "count day" times the number of students enrolled in the program on that day.
Unique features of note Effective with the class of 2010, students will have to earn a state-recognized certification or certificate of technical achievement in the career-technical program to receive a Core 40 diploma with technical honors.
Sources Title: IND. CODE ANN. § 20-30-15-5
Governing Body: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for Indiana
Oversight: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for Indiana
Required Program: IND. ADMIN. CODE tit. 511, r. 6-7-9, 6-7.1-1, 6-7.1-4, IND. CODE ANN. § 20-32-4-1
Career Clusters: IND. CODE ANN. § 20-25-4-16
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Patty Shutt, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, Indiana Department of Education
Industry Assessment Tools: Patty Shutt, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, Indiana Department of Education
Quality Control Mechanisms
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
Patty Shutt, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, Indiana Department of Education
--Certificate of Mastery: Patty Shutt, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, Indiana Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: Patty Shutt, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, Indiana Department of Education
Teaching Quality: IND. ADMIN. CODE tit. 511, r. 8-2-6
Graduation Requirements: IND. ADMIN. CODE tit. 511, r. 6-7-9, 6-7.1-7, 6-7.1-9, IND. CODE ANN. § 20-32-4-1
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Patty Shutt, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, Indiana Department of Education
Funding Mechanism: Funding Crosswalk
Unique Features: IND. ADMIN. CODE tit. 511, r. 6-7.1-7

Iowa
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education and State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No
Career clusters the state has identified Iowa has identified six career pathways which include the sixteen national career clusters:
  • Business, Information Management and Marketing
    • Marketing, Sales and Services
    • Business, Management and Administration
    • Information Technology
    • Finance
  • Agriscience and Natural Resources
    • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Family, Consumer and Human Services
    • Hospitality and Tourism
    • Law, Public Safety and Security
    • Government and Public Administration
    • Education and Training
    • Human Services
  • Health Sciences
    • Health Sciences
  • Engineering, Industrial and Technology Services
    • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
    • Manufacturing
    • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
    • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts and Communications
    • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Life sciences (including production agriculture, value added processing, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology)
Advanced manufacturing
Information solutions
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Provisional career and technical secondary license is provided to noneducators entering the education profession to instruct in occupations and specialty fields that are recognized in career and technical service areas and career cluster areas. The licensee must have completed 6000 hours of recent and relevant career and technical experience in the teaching endorsement area sought.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Statute was passed for the development and implementation of career academies designed to provide new career preparation opportunities for high school students that are formally linked with postsecondary career and technical education programs.  "Career academies" are defined as a program of study that combined a minimum of two years of secondary education with an associate degree or the equivalent career preparatory program. 
Sources Governing
Body: 
ACTE Online--Iowa CTE State Profile
Oversight: IA. ADMIN. CODE 281-12.5
Career Clusters: ACTE Online--Iowa CTE State Profile
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: ACTE Online--Iowa CTE State Profile
Teaching Quality: IA. ADMIN. CODE 282-16.2(272)
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): IOWA CODE § 260C.18A, Administrative Rule Chapter 47

Kansas
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) As of October 22, 2007, Academic and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No, it is a local decision. However, districts can receive weighted state funding for delivering approved career and technical education courses.
Career clusters the state has identified Kansas has adopted sixteen career clusters and six career fields:
  • Arts, Communication and Information
    • Arts, A/V Technology, and Communications
      • AudioVideo Techniques
      • Journalism and Broadcasting
      • Performing Arts
      • Printing Techniques
      • Telecommunications Techniques
      • Visual Arts
    • Information Technology
      • Information Support and Services
      • Interactive Media
      • Network Systems
      • Programming and Software Development
  • Industrial, Manufacturing and Engineering Systems
    • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
      • Facility and Mobile Equipment Maintenance
      • Health, Safety and Environmental Management
      • Logistics Planning and Management Services
      • Sales and Services
      • Transportation Operations
      • Transportation/Systems Infrastructure Planning, Management and Regulation
      • Warehousing and Distribution Center Operations
    • Architecture and Construction
      • Construction
      • Design and Pre-construction
      • Maintenance and Operations
    • Manufacturing
      • Production
      • Manufacturing Production Process Development
      • Maintenance, Installation and Repair
      • Quality Assurance
      • Logistics and Inventory Control
      • Health, Safety and Environmental Assurance
    • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
      • Engineering and Technology
      • Science and Math (Investigative, Informational and Educational)
  • Health Science
    • Health Science
      • Biotechnology Research and Development
      • Diagnostic Services
      • Supportive Services
      • Health Informatics
      • Therapeutic Services
  • Human Resources and Services
    • Law, Public Safety and Security
      • Correction Services
      • Emergency and Fire Management Services
      • Law Enforcement Services
      • Legal Services
      • Security and Protective Services
    • Government and Public Administration
      • Revenue and Taxation
      • Foreign Service
      • Governance
      • National Security
      • Planning
      • Public Management and Administration
      • Regulation
    • Human Services
      • Consumer Services
      • Counseling and Mental Health Services
      • Early Childhood Development and Services
      • Family and Community Services
      • Personal Care Services
    • Education and Training
      • Administration and Administrative Support
      • Professional Support Services
      • Teaching/Training
  • Business, Marketing and Management
    • Marketing, Sales and Service
      • Buying and Merchandising
      • Distribution and Logistics
      • e-Marketing
      • Management and Entrepreneurship
      • Marketing Communications and Promotion
      • Marketing Information Management and Research
      • Professional Sales and Marketing
    • Business, Management and Administration
      • Administrative and Information Support
      • Business Analysis
      • Business Financial Management and Accounting
      • Marketing
      • Human Resources
      • Management
    • Finance
      • Banking and Related Services
      • Business Financial Management
      • Financial and Investment Planning
      • Insurance Services
    • Hospitality and Tourism
      • Lodging
      • Recreation, Amusements and Attractions
      • Restaurants and Food and Beverage Services
      • Travel and Tourism
  • Environmental and Agricultural Systems
    • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
      • Animal Systems
      • Agribusiness Systems
      • Environmental Service Systems
      • Food Products and Processing Systems
      • Natural Resources Systems
      • Plant Systems
      • Power, Structural and Technical Systems

State-approved career cluster pathways are to be fully implemented by 2012. The state is currently working on a two-year phase-in/phase-out of current career and technical education programs to career cluster pathways.

Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech STEM and Project Lead the Way (engineering, biomechanics, aeronautics and other applied math and science arenas) 
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Assessment tools are being developed. In February 2008, the state board of education approved a motion that charges the state department of education with the creation/approval of gold standard assessments that support high expectations (industry-recognized credentials/certifications) for each of the career clusters.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: State has an approval process for new career and technical programs which is currently being updated and automated. There is a quality assurance process in place to monitor program continuation. The state is also working on an integrated compliance and monitoring process.  
Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: State is using Perkins Reserve Fund monies to emphasize business and industry partnerships and teacher externships.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Teachers must be licensed in the program taught. Kansas also allows certification with business and industry work experience and pedagogy.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Kansas chose to merge Tech Prep monies into the Perkins IV Title I monies.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) 1.5 FTE for students enrolled in an approved career and technical education course.
Sources Governing Body: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Oversight: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Required Program: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Career Clusters: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Industry Assessment Tools: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
--Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Teaching Quality: KAN. ADMIN. REGS. 72-1392
Graduation Requirements: KAN. ADMIN. REGS. 91-31-21, 91-31-32, 91-31-35
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education
Funding Mechanism: Robin Harris, Assistant Director, Academic and Technical Education, Kansas Department of Education

Kentucky
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Workforce Investment Board
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Office of Career and Technical Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture
  • Arts and Humanities
  • Business/Marketing
  • Communications
  • Construction
  • Education
  • Health Science
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Manufacturing
  • Public Services
  • Science and Mathematics
  • Social Sciences
  • Transportation

Of these, data is collected for accountability on ten: agriculture, business and marketing, communications, construction, health science, human services, information technology, manufacturing, science and mathematics, and transportation.

Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Certificate of Mastery: Kentucky Employability Certificate is a reliable and consistent indicator of basic employment skills. Certificate was created by the Kentucky Community and Technical College System.
Emphasis on Rigor: The department of education and the office of career and technical education, is charged with annual review of the rigor and intensity of the technical programs and expectations for student performance in reading, math, science, and writing and other academic skills as well as in technical skill development. 
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) The department of education, with assistance from the office of career and technical education, annually reviews statewide analysis and report of academic achievement of technical education students. The department's review must evaluate the adequacy of teachers' preparation to provide all students with the academic and technical skills needed for successful transition to postsecondary education, work or the military.
Graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes. The general assembly set up a School-to-Careers System that serves as an umbrella for career-related programs in the public schools, including school-to-work, tech-prep, and High Schools That Work initiatives. The program provides matching funds to school districts or consortia of school districts for the development and implementation of comprehensive plans that include several specifically outlined aspects.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) School-to-Careers Grant Program designed to provide matching funds to school districts or consortia of school districts for the development and implementation of comprehensive plans that include:
  • A comprehensive career awareness and exploration program for all K-8 students that includes learning about the state's 14 career clusters
  • High level academic and vocational courses for all secondary students to replace a general track curriculum
  • A comprehensive career guidance program to assist all secondary students in developing individual graduation plans
  • Applied academic instructional models for all disciplines and integration of academics and vocational education curriculum
  • Implementation of industry skill standards within all relevant academic and vocational education programs
  • Planned instructional programs to meet the needs of students with disabilities and other special needs students
  • Opportunity for students to receive, in addition to a high school diploma, a Career Major Certification upon completion of the high school graduation requirements, work-based learning experiences, specific course work and a career culminating project
  • Opportunity for students to participate in structured work-based learning
  • Linkages with postsecondary institutions that create a smooth and seamless transition from secondary to postsecondary education
  • Professional development for faculty and staff focused on developing integrated and applied curriculum
  • A School-to-Careers Partnership Council composed of representatives from business, labor, education agencies, parents, students, teachers, administrators and community organizations.
Unique features of note University of Louisville's College of Education and Human Development is studying how to increase academic achievement and success among career and technical students in high school and beyond. The five-year, $20.5 million study brings to Louisville the National Research Center on Career and Technical Education.

State has developed 10 "interdisciplinary courses" that allow students to meet requirements for academic courses by taking classes that carefully merge academic standards with career-oriented content.  Computer aided drafting/geometry and construction geometry, for example, are structured so they cover all 23 state standards for geometry. 
Sources Governing Body: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 151.025 7(b)
Oversight: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 151B.025, 151B.112
Required Program: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 156.160; 704 KY. ADMIN. REGS. 4:010, 3:305
Career Clusters: Kentucky Department of Education's Career Clusters Brochure, KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 158.7603, 158.816
Quality Control Mechanism
--Certificate of Mastery:
705 KY. ADMIN. REGS. 4.231, 703 KY. ADMIN. REGS. 5:020
--Emphasis on Rigor: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 151B.255, 158.7603, 158.816
Teaching Quality: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 158.816, 156.095, 161.020, 161.028, 161.030
Graduation Requirements: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 156.160; 704 KY. ADMIN. REGS. 4:010, 3:305
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): KY. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 158.760, 158.7603
Funding Mechanism: KY. REV. STAT. ANN. § 158.7603
Unique Features: "UofL Gets $20.5 Million Grant", Louisville Courier-Journal 9/27/07

Louisiana
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Education Board
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Board of Regents
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes. Each high school is to offer not less than one vocational major program. Schools are encouraged to offer several programs from which students may choose.

By the beginning of the 2010-2011 school year or as soon as funding is available, any eligible student age 16-21 must have the opportunity to be simultaneously enrolled in high school and in a technical training program at a community or technical college, in addition to any other available option. 
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agricultural Education
  • Business and Marketing Education
  • Family and Consumer Sciences
  • Health Occupations
  • Technology Education
  • General Trade and Technical Education
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality The board of supervisors is to provide assistance to local boards and leadership in the development of the minimum standards of technical and skill programs to allow the programs to meet the standard necessary to be included in an industry certification program.

To earn a career/technical endorsement to the high school diploma, a student must complete an approved industry-based certification or three hours of postsecondary coursework.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Emphasis on Rigor: Louisiana Administrative Code was modified in 2007 to align the career and technical education course offerings more closely with national standards. Louisiana's High School Career Option requires each high school to offer at least one career major program.  A career major program is to provide a student with greater technical skill and a strong academic core.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Governor Jindal and the heads of labor and economic development announced workforce and economic development initiatives at the end of February 2008. Included in the initiatives is a requirement that every district have industry-based certification training available to their career and technical education instructors.
Graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Unique features of note To earn a career/technical endorsement, students must complete either an industry-based certification from the list of certifications approved by the state board or 3 college hours in a career/technical area articulating to a postsecondary institution (either by completing the credits or via a waiver).

Since 2003, the Louisiana Workforce Commission has issued the Louisiana Work Ready! Certificate to participants who achieve passing score levels on WorkKeys exams.  The certificate is a credential that signifies to an employer than an individual has certain fundamental employability skills necessary for success in the workplace in three core subject areas:  applied mathematics, reading for information, and locating information.
Sources Governing Body: LA. REV. STAT. § 17:187.5
Oversight: LA. REV. STAT. §17:3126
Required Program: LA. REV. STAT. § 17:183.3
Career Clusters: Louisiana High School Directory of Career Clusters and Areas of Concentration
Industry Assessment Tools: LA. REV. STAT. § 17:187.5, LA. ADMIN. CODE tit. 28:CXV.2319(H)
Quality Control Mechanism
--Emphasis on Rigor: 
LA. ADMIN. CODE tit. 28:CXV.2319, 2377 and 2387, LA. REV. STAT. § 17:183.1-183.3
Teaching Quality: Press Release, Office of the Governor, 2/28/08
Graduation Requirements: LA. ADMIN. CODE tit. 28:CXV.2319, LA. STAT. ANN. §§ 17:183.1--17:183.4
Unique Features: LA. ADMIN. CODE tit. 28, pt. CXV § 2319

Maine
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No. However, a locally-set standard for student performance (as asessed as part of the local assessment system) in applied technology is a requirement for graduation.
Career clusters the state has identified Maine is phasing in career clusters over the next several years. At this time, they have identified eight career clusters.
  • Agriscience
  • Business and Marketing
  • Informational Technology
  • Protective Services
  • Early Childhood Education
  • Health Science
  • Multimedia and Arts
  • Trade and Industry
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Sources Governing Body: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for Maine
Oversight: 20-A CODE ME. R. § 405
Required Program: 05-071 CODE ME. R. § 127
Career Clusters: Program of Study

Maryland
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technology Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

Maryland has identified ten career clusters:

  • Arts, Media and Communication
  • Business Management and Finance
  • Construction and Development
  • Consumer Services, Hospitality and Tourism
  • Environmental, Agricultural and Natural Resources Systems
  • Health and Biosciences
  • Human Resource Services
  • Information Technology
  • Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology
  • Transportation Technologies
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech State emphasis within the career clusters, as follows:
  • Arts, Media and Communication - Interactive Media Production
  • Health and Biosciences - Project Lead the Way Biomedical Sciences
  • Human Resource Services - Homeland Security
  • Information Technology - Cisco Networking and Oracle Database Modeling
  • Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology - Project Lead the Way Pre-Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies
  • Transportation Technologies - ASE/NATEF Automotive Technology
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Yes, there are over 30 industry-recognized credentials available for students to acquire through completion of the Maryland's career and technical education programs of study. 
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: Career and technical education programs must align with the "Policies and Procedures for the Development and Continuous Improvement of CTE Programs" in order to receive state approval.
Emphasis on Rigor: Every Maryland career and technical education program of study includes the sequence of academic and technical courses that prepares students for both college and careers. Over 50 percent of Maryland's career and technical education completers also meet the requirements for admission to the University System of Maryland.
Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: Local school systems and community colleges receive Perkins funds to expand and improve career and technical education programs of study. At the state level, Perkins grants provide incentive funds to enable local recipients to align career and technical education programs to Maryland's workforce and economic development needs. Over 350 employers serve on state cluster advisory boards to ensure currency of the program.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt)

Applicants have options for receiving certification:

  • Earn a bachelor's or higher degree in a state approved career and technology education program and provide official verification of two years of previous satisfactory occupational experience in the trade to be taught. 
  • Have a bachelor's or higher degree in industrial arts/technology education or in the trade to be taught and provide official verification of  two years of previous satisfactory occupational experience in the trade to be taught.
  • Earn an associate degree in the trade to be taught or a bachelor's or higher degree from an institution of higher education and provide official verification of three years of previous satisfactory occupational experience in the trade to be taught.
  • Have a secondary school diploma or the equivalent and official verification of five years of previous satisfactory occupational experience in the trade to be taught.  This option requires two years full-time employment.

In each case, experience is to be within ten years of the issuance of the certificate and include one year of full-time employment. The applicant must also complete the professional education coursework. Six semester hours of curriculum/methods of teaching/practicum is to be completed before the second year of teaching and include training on student performance assessment and evaluation, teaching of students with special needs, the teaching of reading and writing, and the teaching of the math or science basis of the trade. A graduate of a career and technology education program in the practice of the trade to be taught, with a minimum 3.0 grade point average in course work related to the trade to be taught, must earn credit for 6 months occupational experience. A maximum of 9 semester hours of credit may be earned through Continuing Professional Development (CPD).

Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Almost every Maryland career and technology education program of study is a Tech Prep program.
Unique features of note In his 2008 state of the state message, Governor O'Malley spoke to the need to expand and improve career and technical education programming to provide access to students in every high school in the state.

In reforming the state's teacher certification renewal, all teachers are now required to receive professional development in reading theory and practice.  This requirement affects career and technical education teachers as well and, as such, is developing the skill among career and technical education teachers to better integrate reading comprehension activities into the career and technical education context, thus improving technical literacy of students.
Sources Title: MD. CODE ANN. [EDUC] § 21-201
Governing Body: Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education
Oversight: Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education
Required Program: CODE OF MD. REGULATIONS 13A.03.02.04
Career Clusters: Maryland State Department of Education's Career Clusters
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education
--Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education
Teaching Quality: CODE OF MD. REGULATIONS 13A.12.02.15
Graduation Requirements: CODE OF MD. REGULATIONS 13A.03.02.04
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education
Unique Features: Lynne Gilli, Program Manager, CTE Instructional Branch, Maryland State Department of Education

Massachusetts
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Vocational-Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No. Curriculum and graduation requirements are set by local boards of education.
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Arts and Communication Services
  • Construction
  • Manufacturing, Engineering and Technology
  • Transportation
  • Wholesale/Retail Sales and Services
  • Business and Administrative Services
  • Education
  • Information Technology Services
  • Health Services
  • Hospitality and Tourism
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Certificate of Mastery:  State is developing Certificates of Occupational Proficiency that signify mastery of a core set of academic skills, technical competencies and knowledge. The certificates are to begin with the graduating class of 2010. To qualify for the certificate, students will be required to demonstrate mastery of the knowledge and skills needed for employment and further education by passing both written and performance exams. Students also will be required to complete a portfolio to demonstrate what they have learned and develop a career plan and resume.
Emphasis on Rigor:  Rigorous standards, measurable against students in other states and in other countries have been established.  Included are the standards for three determinations of certificates--competency determination (exit exam), certificate of mastery, and certificate of occupational proficiency. The state board of education was charged with establishing the student academic standards.

Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Sources Governing Body: Jeffery Wheeler, State Director of CTE, Massachusetts Department of Education
Oversight: MASS. GEN. LAWS. ANN. ch 69 §§ 1A, 1B
Required Program: MASS. GEN. LAWS. ANN. ch. 69 § 1I
Career Clusters: Vocational/Technical Education Frameworks
Quality Control Mechanism
--Certificate of Mastery: 
Jeffery Wheeler, State Director of CTE, Massachusetts Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: MASS. GEN. LAWS. ANN. ch. 69 § 1D
Graduation Requirements: MASS. GEN. LAWS ANN. ch. 69 § 1D
Tech Prep: Jeffery Wheeler, State Director of CTE, Massachusetts Department of Education
Unique Features: Jeffery Wheeler, State Director of CTE, Massachusetts Department of Education

Michigan
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education and Department of Career Development
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

Michigan has six career pathways encompassing the sixteen U.S. Department of Education career clusters:

  • Arts and Communications
    • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business/Management/Marketing and Technology
    • Business, Management and Administration
    • Finance
    • Hospitality and Tourism
    • Information Technology
    • Marketing, Sales and Services
  • Engineering, Manufacturing and Industrial Technology
    • Architecture and Construction
    • Manufacturing
    • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
    • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
  • Health Sciences
    • Health Science
  • Human Services
    • Education and Training
    • Human Services
    • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
    • Government and Public Services
  • Natural Resources and Agriscience
    • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources

 

Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Sources Title: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 380.7
Governing Body: MICH COMP. LAWS §§ 388.995, 388.998
Oversight: MICH COMP. LAWS § 388.998
Required Program: MICH. COMP. LAWS § 380.1278(b)
Career Clusters: State Department of Education's Office of Career and Technical Preparation Web Site
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Tech Prep Education Programs

Minnesota
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Colleges and Universities
Agency or agencies providing program oversight For secondary programs, oversight is through the Department of Education
For postsecondary programs, oversight is through the State Colleges and Universities
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No. All public school districts must develop local standards and assessments, and must offer programming either locally or collaboratively so that students can meet those standards and assessments.
Career clusters the state has identified Minnesota has adopted a career clusters framework using the national model developed by the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium. 
  • Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources
  • Arts, Communications and Information Systems
    • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
    • Information Technology
  • Engineering, Manufacturing and Technology
    • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
    • Architecture and Construction
    • Manufacturing
    • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Health Science Technology
  • Human Services
    • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
    • Government and Public Administration
    • Human Services
    • Education and Training
  • Business, Management and Administration
    • Marketing, Sales and Service
    • Business, Management and Administration
    • Finance
    • Hospitality and Tourism
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Biomedical, engineering and math
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Currently being developed
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: Local programs must be state approved every five years or whenever substantial changes are made, using a 25-element rubric. Programs must be aligned with opportunities at the postsecondary level that culminate in attainment of a degree, certificate or diploma.
Emphasis on Rigor: The state's 25-element program approval rubric encompasses continuous program assessment, continuous program improvement process, curriculum content, instructional delivery, student assessment and curriculum/instructional resource review.

Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Teacher must hold a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited institution, hold or apply and qualify for another Minnesota license valid for teaching in grades 9 through 12; and show verification of completing a Board of Teaching preparation program approved under part 8700.7600 leading to the licensure of teacher coordinators of work-based learning.

The state has 13 standard teaching licenses recognized for secondary career and technical education programs.  The licenses are for agriculture, business, communications technology, construction careers, creative design careers, early childhood careers, family and consumer sciences, hospitality careers, manufacturing careers, medical careers, transportation careers, teacher/coordinator of work-based learning, and career/technical accommodation specialist for students with disabilities.
Graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Local permissive levy available to support state-approved programs at the lesser of $80 per student in grades 10-12 or 25% of program costs.

Funding is available for career and technical education programs specifically designed for students with disabilities using a funding formula identical to that used for general special education.
Unique features of note A Minnesota-South Dakota Public Vocational Education Reciprocity Agreement has been established to provide greater educational opportunities and services to the citizens of the two states with the specific aims of enhancing accessibility to programs, expanding the range of programs available, and promoting the greater economy of state finances through cooperative planning to avoid duplication of programs. The South Dakota Board of Education and the Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board are responsible for the administration of the agreement.
Sources Coordinating Body: MINN. STAT. ANN. § 136F.79
Oversight: MINN. STAT. ANN. § 136F.79
Required Program: MINN. STAT. ANN. §§ 120B.022, 120B.023
Career Clusters:  Minnesota Career Fields, Clusters and Pathways
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Minnesota State Plan for Career and Technical Education
Industry Assessment Tools: Minnesota State Plan for Career and Technical Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
Minnesota State Plan for Career and Technical Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: Minnesota State Plan for Career and Technical Education
Teaching Quality: MINN. ADMIN. RULES 8710.4825
Graduation Requirements: MINN. STAT. ANN. § 120B.023
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): MINN. STAT. ANN. §§ 124D.49, 124D.50
Funding Mechanism: MINN. STAT. ANN. § 124D.4531
Unique Features: S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-53B-2

Mississippi
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Vocational and Technical Education
Governing body State Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education, Director of the Division of Vocational and Technical Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Health Care
  • Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Construction and Manufacturing
  • Transportation
  • Business Management and Marketing
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Math
  • Human Services
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes.  The state created the Tech-Prep Fund for implementing Tech-Prep programs in grades 7 through 12 and in the public community and junior colleges.  Funds are to be allocated for the following purposes:
  • Equip labs for hands-on classes in grades 7, 8 and 9
  • Implement application based teaching methodology in existing academic courses
  • Develop and implement articulation, integration and sequential course study plans in vocational and academic courses
  • Administer occupational tests
  • Implement and update career/educational plans for each student
  • Implement career centers for each school
  • Provide equipment upgrades to meet technology demands, staff development and teaching materials to implement application based methodology for each of the community college sites.
Sources Governing Body: MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-3-25
Oversight: MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-3-25
Required Program: CODE MISS. R. 36-000-064
Career Clusters: CODE MISS. R. 36-000-114
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): MISS. CODE ANN. § 37-151-25

Missouri
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

Missouri has a career clusters framework which has six paths, each with career pathways and programs of study:

  • Business, Management and Technology
    • Business, Management and Administration
    • Information Technology
    • Marketing, Sales and Service
    • Finance
  • Arts and Communication
    • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Health Services
    • Health Sciences
  • Industrial and Engineering Technology
    • Architecture and Construction
    • Manufacturing
    • Science, Technology, Engineering and Math
    • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
  • Human Services
    • Education and Training
    • Government and Public Relations
    • Hospitality and Tourism
    • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
    • Human Services
  • Natural Resources/Agriculture
    • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Pre-engineering
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Although not state mandated, some schools use industry-specific assessment tools.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: Career education programs must align to the state requirements specified in the Missouri School Improvement Program.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Demonstrated professional/technical skills and the appropriate educator coursework.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Notes/Citation: Effective with the Class of 2010, all students are required to complete one unit of "practical arts."
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Tech Prep education in Missouri is an articulated two-year secondary and two or more year postsecondary education program that:
  • Integrates academic and vocational and technical instruction which utilizes work-based and worksite learning where appropriate.
  • Builds student competence in mathematics, science, reading, writing, communications, economics and workplace skills through contextual academics and integrated instruction in a coherent nonduplicative sequential course of study.
  • Provides technical preparation in at least one of the following:
    • Arts and Communications
    • Business, Management and Technology
    • Health Services
    • Industrial and Engineering Technology
    • Agricultural and Natural Resources
  • Leads to the completion of an associate or a baccalaureate degree, postsecondary certificate, or two or more year apprenticeship program in a specific career field.
  • Leads to placement in related employment or to further education.
Unique features of note The Missouri Career Readiness Certificate (MoCRC) utilizes a combination of job analysis, assessment and training to ensure that Missouri workers have real workplace skills and are able to compete in today’s rapidly changing labor market.  The certificate was developed in partnership with ACT.

As a result of legislation passed in the 2006 session, the state department of elementary and secondary education developed the Missouri Career Prep Certificate Program.  The voluntary program provides the opportunity for districts to:
  • Work with employers to identify and validate local standards
  • Create local demand and meet employer expectations in the community
  • Issue a certificate based on the academic and soft skills necessary to be successful in the workplace.
Sources Governing Body: MO. REV. STAT. § 161.092
Oversight: MO. REV. STAT. § 161.092
Required Program: MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 5 § 50-345.300
Career Clusters: Missouri Department of Education
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Missouri Department of Education
Industry Assessment Tools: Missouri Department of Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
Missouri Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: Missouri School Improvement Program
Teaching Quality: MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 5 § 80-800.270
Graduation Requirements: MO. CODE REGS. ANN. tit. 5 § 50-345.300
Tech Prep: Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
Unique Features: Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education

Montana
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Board of Regents
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education and the Office of Public Instruction
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources
  • Architecture, Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology, Administration
  • Business Administration, Management
  • Education, Training
  • Finance
  • Government, Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality, Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Security, Public Safety
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Service, Sales
  • Technology, Science, Engineering, Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution, Logistics
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Notes/Citation: One unit of vocational-technical education is required for graduation.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Sources Title: MONT. CODE ANN. 20-7-301
Governing Body: MONT. CODE ANN. 20-7-329
Oversight: MONT. CODE ANN. 20-7-329
Required Program: MONT. ADMIN. R. 10.55.905
Career Clusters: Montana Career Clusters
Graduation Requirements: MONT. ADMIN. R. 10.55.905
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Montana University System, Office of the Commissioner

Nebraska
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Arts, Communication and Information Systems
  • Business, Marketing and Management
  • Environmental and Agricultural Systems
  • Health Sciences
  • Human Resources and Services
  • Industrial, Manufacturing and Engineering Systems

 

Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes. Primary objective is to prepare secondary students to enter postsecondary component of their program of study remediation free. The program uses the Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education Dual Enrollment Standards as a guide for establishing articulated programs of study.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Competitive grants
Sources Title: NEB. REV. STAT. §§ 79-765, 79-766
Governing Body: NEB. REV. STAT. §§ 79-214, 79-321, 79-740
Oversight: NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-766
Required Program: NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-729, NEB. ADMIN. CODE tit. 92, ch. 10, § 203
Career Clusters: Providing Equitable Opportunities for an Essential Education for All Students in Nebraska Public School Districts: A Policy Document of the State Board of Education; NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-765
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): NEB. REV. STAT. §  79-11, 137
Funding Mechanism: NEB. REV. STAT. § 79-767

Nevada
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board for Career and Technical Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Superintendent of Public Instruction, serving as Executive Officer for the State Board for Career and Technical Education.
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified

Programs are organized under six umbrella areas:

  • Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Business and Marketing Education
  • Family and Consumer Sciences
  • Health Sciences Education
  • Information Technology Education
  • Trade and Industrial Education

The areas are further defined by the approved sixteen career clusters.

  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Sciences
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Health Sciences
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Notes/Citation: Students must complete 1 unit of either "arts and humanities" or "occupational education" and .5 unit "use of computers."
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Special career and technical education grants
Sources Title: NEV. REV. STAT. ANN. § 385.010
Governing Body: NEV. REV. STAT. ANN. § 385.010
Oversight: NEV. REV. STAT. ANN. § 385.010
Required Program: NEV. REV. STAT. ANN. §§ 388.380, 389.672
Career Clusters: Nevada State Five-Year Plan
Statewide Emphasis/Focus:  Nevada Department of Education
Graduation Requirements: NEV. ADMIN. CODE 389.664, 389.672
Funding Mechanism: NEV. REV. STAT. ANN. § 385.010

New Hampshire
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education/State Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No information available
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Advanced manufacturing, engineering, biotechnology.  Moving towards STEM as an area of potential growth.
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Yes
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: State has a regional career and technical education structure. They have four regional consortia. Programs are monitored to ensure that the competencies are being taught and assessed. 
Emphasis on Rigor: All of the state career and technical education competencies are being reviewed by business and industry representatives and include the 21st century skills as well as all aspects of the specific industry. The competencies are cross-walked with the state's Grade Span Expectations for secondary schools.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) State has alternative certification (Alternative IV) for career and technical education teachers who come from a skill area. This is a three-year mentored program to gain certification. Candidates learn pedagogy, school operations and classroom management.
Graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, high school to community college in career cluster areas linked by a career pathway program of study.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Special fund
Unique features of note Private and homeschool students may attend high school career and technical education programs.  Private students will have to pay the entire cost of the program.  State is still determining how to cost out the home school students.  There is a reciprocity arrangement with two schools in Vermont that are lacking career and technical education centers in their area.  Two Vermont schools accept New Hampshire students on a tuition basis.
Sources Governing Body: N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED. 1401.03
Oversight: N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED. 1401.03
Career Clusters: College Tech Prep and New Hampshire Career Pathways
Statewide Emphasis/Focus:  N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED § 188-E:14
Industry Assessment Tools: Memo from New Hampshire Department of Education, Bureau of Career Development
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED § 188-E:12
--Emphasis on Rigor: N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED § 188-E:12
Teaching Quality: N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED § 504
Graduation Requirements: N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED 306.23
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): College Tech Prep and New Hampshire Career Pathways
Funding Mechanism: N.H. CODE ADMIN. R. ANN. ED. 1401.03
Unique Features: Memo from New Hampshire Department of Education, Bureau of Career Development


New Jersey
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Under contract with the state board of education, a district board of education (including a county vocational board of education) or under contract with career and technical training providers.
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administrative Services
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)
  • Transportation

Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) For experience-based endorsements, candidate must possess a professional license or a recognized industry certificate in the field.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Some of the districts in the state offer tech prep programs.
Sources Governing Body: N.J. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6A § 19-2.1
Oversight: N.J. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6A § 19-2.4
Required Program: N.J. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6A § 19-4.1
Career Clusters: N. J. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6A § 9-11.2
Teaching Quality: N.J. ADMIN. CODE. tit. 6A, § 9-11.2, 6A § 9-9.2
Graduation Requirements: N.J. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6, § 8-5.1
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): New Jersey Department of Education, Office of Career and Technical Education

New Mexico
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Public Education Department
Agency or agencies providing program oversight No information available
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture Education
  • Family and Consumer
  • Health Science
  • Marketing Education
  • Technology Education
  • Trade and Industrial Education
  • Transportation and Logistics
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Certificate of Mastery: Career Readiness Certification uses ACT's WorkKeys to assess work readiness skills and award the "Certified for Success" career readiness certificates.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Unique features of note 2007 legislation directs the state department of education to establish a readiness assessment system to measure the readiness of every high school student for success in higher education or a career in their eleventh grade.  This becomes effective with the students entering the ninth grade in the 2009-2010 school year.
Sources Governing Body: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 9-24-4
Required Program: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-13-1.1; N.M. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6, § 30.2
Career Clusters: Career-Technical and Workforce Bureau Clusters
Quality Control Mechanism
--Certificate of Mastery: 
Certified for Success
Graduation Requirements: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-13-1.1; N.M. ADMIN. CODE tit. 6, § 30.2
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Career-Technical and Workforce Bureau Tech Prep
Unique Features: N.M. STAT. ANN. § 22-2C-4.1

New York
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Education Department
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Board of Regents
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture
  • Business and Marketing
  • Family and Consumer Sciences
  • Health Occupations
  • Trade and Technical
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Unique features of note Board of Regents is launching a study on expanding career and technical opportunities.  Goal is to come up with a plan by fall of 2008.

Mayor Bloomberg (New York City), in his state of the city speech, says he would overhaul vocational education in the high schools and community colleges, beginning in September 2009. He announced the creation of a task force to be led by former mayor David Dinkins and Sy Sternberg, chairman and CEO of New York Life Insurance Company. 
Sources Oversight: N. Y. COMP. CODES R. & REGS. tit. 8 § 140.1
Required Program: N.Y. COMP. CODES R. & REGS. tit. 8 § 100.2, 100.5, N.Y. CONS. LAW § 4602
Career Clusters:  New York State Department of Education Career Clusters
Unique Features: "Vocational Education Programs Are in Need of Repair", Buffalo News, 8/21/07

North Carolina
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career-Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No information available
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agricultural and Natural Resources Technologies
  • Arts and Sciences
  • Biological and Chemical Technologies
  • Business Technologies
  • Commercial and Artistic Production Technologies
  • Construction Technologies
  • Engineering Technologies
  • Health Sciences
  • Industrial Technologies
  • Public Service Technologies
  • Transport Systems Technologies
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Sources Governing Body: N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-1
Oversight: N. C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-154.1
Required Program: N.C. ADMIN. CODE tit. 16, r. 6D.0503; N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-81
Career Clusters: North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
Graduation Requirements: N.C. ADMIN. CODE tit. 16, r. 6D.0503; N.C. GEN. STAT. § 115C-81
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): N.C. GEN. STAT. §§ 115C-102.6A, 115C-238.50

North Dakota
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board for Career and Technical Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Career and Technical Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes, all high schools must offer two credits of CTE to be accredited.
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law and Public Safety
  • Management and Administration
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech An emerging technology program rotates high tech equipment among 80 area schools. 
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Not at this time. Over the next five years, all programs will use industry-validated assessments.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: State has developed standards of quality and a program approval process.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) State has an alternative certification process for teachers. Process has a five year record of 85% retention of teachers.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Separate state funding for career and technical education.  Base is 25% reimbursement for approved career and technical education programs.
Unique features of note Most states do not have a state board responsible for the oversight of career and technical education programs.  The oversight is generally performed by the state education agency. North Dakota has a designated board.  The state board for career and technical education consists of members of the state board of public school education, the executive director of job service in the state, and the commissioner of higher education or his designee.  The board's powers and duties include:
  • Administering and legislation relating to career and technical education.
  • Administering the funds provided by the federal government or the state and to contract with any public or private institution or agency in the state and in another state.
  • Formulating plans to promote career and technical education in such subjects as are essential and an integral part of the public education in the state.
  • Making studies and investigations relating to career and technical education.
  • Providing for the preparation of teachers.
  • Promoting and aiding in the establishment of schools, departments or classes and to cooperate with local communities in the maintenance of career and technical schools, departments and classes.
  • Prescribing the qualifications and providing for the certification of teachers, directors and supervisors.
  • Cooperating with governing bodies of school districts and with organizations and communities in the maintenance of classes for the preparation of teachers, directors and supervisors of career and technical education, to maintain classes for such purposes under its own direction and control, and to establish and control the qualifications to be possessed by persons engaged in training of career and technical education teachers.

 

Sources

Title: N.D. CENTURY CODE § 15-20.1-01
Governing Body: N.D. CENTURY CODE § 15-20.1-02
Oversight: N.D. CENTURY CODE § 15-20.1-03
Required Program: N.D. CENTURY CODE §15.1-21-02
Career Clusters: Career Clusters
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Wayne Kutzer, State CTE Director, North Dakota Department of Public Instruction
Industry Assessment Tools: Wayne Kutzer, State CTE Director, North Dakota Department of Public Instruction
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
Standards of Quality, Program Approval Process
Teaching Quality: N.D. ADMIN. CODE §§ 67.1-02-03-08, 67.1-02-04-06
Funding Mechanism: Wayne Kutzer, State CTE Director, North Dakota Department of Public Instruction
Unique Features: N.D. CENTURY CODE § 15-20.1-03


Ohio
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career-Technical Education
Governing body Office of Career-Technical and Adult Education within the Ohio Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture and Environmental Systems
  • Arts and Communication
  • Business and Administrative Services
  • Construction Technologies
  • Education and Training
  • Engineering and Science Technologies
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law and Public Safety
  • Manufacturing Technologies
  • Marketing
  • Transportation Systems
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) The Ohio Department of Education has provided an annual funding allotment to university career and technical education teacher preparation programs in the hope of producing a greater number of qualified career and technical educators.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, there are 36 career academies throughout the state, in both urban and suburban areas.  They often build on the efforts of Tech Prep and High Schools That Work.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) State provides foundation basic aid for each secondary career and technical education student FTE. Additional weighted funding for its career and technical education students is provided based on program of enrollment.
Unique features of note Each career-technical education planning district is to provide the opportunity for all eligible nonpublic school students within the geographic boundaries of the public school district to participate in the career-technical education job-training programs without financial assessment, charge, or tuition to such student, except for financial assessment, charge or tuition which is also charged to the public school student. The state has a total of 91 career-technical planning districts.

The state has appointed workforce and academic reform teams to work with struggling high schools.  The teams assist schools in reorganizing around broad career themes with a rigorous academic core.  Career/technical and academic teachers are given opportunities to plan together and align curriculum to essential college- and career-readiness standards.  The objective is to help students make successful transitions from middle school to high school and high school to postsecondary education and employment.
Sources

Title: OHIO REV. CODE § 3303.01
Governing Body: Kathy Shibley, State Director, Career-Technical and Adult Education, Ohio Department of Education
Oversight: OHIO ADMIN. CODE § 3301-61-02
Required Program: OHIO ADMIN. CODE §§ 3301-13-07, 3301-16-02
Career Clusters: Kathy Shibley, State Director, Career-Technical and Adult Education, Ohio Department of Education
Teaching Quality: ACTEOnline Ohio CTE State Profile
Graduation Requirements: OHIO ADMIN. CODE §§ 3301-13-07, 3301-16-02, 3313.603
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): OHIO ADMIN. CODE § 3333.162
Funding Mechanism: OHIO ADMIN. CODE § 3301-61-03
Unique Features: OHIO ADMIN. CODE § 3301-61-10


Oklahoma
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Career and Technical Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communication
  • Business Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech
  • Health Care
  • Aerospace/Aviation
  • Advanced Manufacturing
  • Energy and Construction
  • STEM
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Yes, multiple assessments used
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: All career and technical education programs offered at comprehensive school districts and technology center districts must go through the program approval process. The state is currently transitioning from "program" approval to "career major" approval. Comprehensive school districts programs receive on-site reviews.  If a career and technical education course is to be approved for academic credit, the state board of education or state regents for higher education must approve the program.
Emphasis on Rigor:   State has started looking at some alignment with 4 year degree programs, especially in the STEM area.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education has created a teacher induction program in partnership with two teacher education institutions. Teacher retention has improved dramatically at the technology centers that are participating in the initiatives.
Graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Cooperative Alliances initiative between Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education and the Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education expands postsecondary access through an established credit-transfer process.  Students begin a college transcript in 11th grade, connecting their high school studies to their postsecondary goals.  The state's Tech Prep goal is to increase the number of the state's CTE students who complete high school with college credit, pursue and complete a post-secondary credential, an industry recognized certificate or degree and are employed in the field in which they were prepared. The program is aligned with two years in high school and two years in community college. 
Unique features of note State has a system of technology centers that serve both high school enrolled youths and adults in programs that lead to certificates.  Twenty-nine technology center districts operate 56 campuses with each center having been approved by local voters with a locally elected board and funding derived from local tax levy.  The system dates back to a 1965 state constitutional amendment authorizing the creation of "area vocational-technical schools".   
Sources Title: OKLA. STAT. ANN. tit. 70 § 14-101
Governing Body: OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 780:1-5-1
Oversight: OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 780:1-5-1
Required Program: OKLA. STAT. ANN. tit. 70 § 11-103.6, OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 210:35-3-66
Career Clusters: OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 780:20-3-2
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Robin Shott, Associate State Director, Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education
Industry Assessment Tools: Instructional Standards - Assessments
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 780:20-5-1
--Emphasis on Rigor: Robin Shott, Associate State Director, Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education
Teaching Quality: Robin Shott, Associate State Director, Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education
Graduation Requirements: OKLA. STAT. ANN. tit. 70 § 11-103.6
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): OKLA. ADMIN. CODE § 780:15-3-6
Unique Features: ACTEOnline Oklahome CTE State Profile

Oregon
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education and Department of Community Colleges and Workforce Development
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resource Systems
  • Arts, Information and Communications
  • Business and Management
  • Health Services
  • Human Resources
  • Industrial and Engineering Systems
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Objectives of 2005 Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century included developing comprehensive, professional technical education programs for students that lead to industry certification. Secondary assessment tools are limited to NATEF, MarkEd, NOCTI and CNA.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: Oregon required secondary career and technical education programs to be approved following a set of quality criteria. Programs must incorporate the four core elements of 1) standards and content, 2) alignment and articulation, 3) accountability and evaluation, and 4) student support services.
Emphasis on Rigor: Oregon's Educational Act for the 21st Century requires the involvement of business and labor in the development and delivery of programs leading to industry certification.  
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) As established by the Oregon Teacher Standards and Practices Commission, all career and technical education teachers must have either a regular Oregon teaching license with a career and technical education endorsement for the program area they are instructing or an alternative career and technical education license based on technical expertise and documented work experience.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Tech Prep has been incorporated into the redesign of Oregon career and technical education and is schools with a career and technical education program are required to have Tech Prep in the program of study.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) No specific earmark for career and technical education.  State funding support is provided through the state school fund.
Unique features of note Locally-sponsored charter schools can become eligible for federal career and technical education funding support following the same career and technical education program quality criteria.
Sources Governing Body: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for Oregon
Oversight: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for Oregon
Required Program: OR. ADMIN. R. 581-022-1130
Career Clusters: Oregon Career Cluster Organization Chart
Industry Assessment Tools: OR. REV. STAT. § 329.975
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
Ron Dodge, Office of Eductional Improvement and Innovation, Oregon Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: OR. REV. STAT. § 329.915
Teaching Quality: OR. ADMIN. R. 584-049-0045, OR. REV. STAT §§342.120, 342.200, 342.400
Graduation Requirements: OR. ADMIN. R. 581-022-1120, 581-022-1130
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Ron Dodge, Office of Eductional Improvement and Innovation, Oregon Department of Education
Funding Mechanism: Ron Dodge, Office of Eductional Improvement and Innovation, Oregon Department of Education
Unique Features: Ron Dodge, Office of Eductional Improvement and Innovation, Oregon Department of Education

Pennsylvania
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career-Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Standing Committee of Vocational Education, State Board of Education, Superintendent of Public Instruction
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and  Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Pennsylvania's STEM Initiative
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Certificate of Mastery: Student Occupational Competency Testing is required by the state department of education. Assessment instruments are developed by the National Occupational Competency Institute.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) State funds career and technical education based on the number of days a student attends the career and technical education program.
Sources Governing Body: Lee Burket, Director, Bureau Career-Technical Education, Pennsylvania Department of Education
Oversight: 24 PA. CODE § 18-1802
Career Clusters: Career Clusters Book
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Pennsylvania's STEM Initiative
Quality Control Mechanism
--Certificate of Mastery: 
Student Occupational Competency Testing in Pennsylvania
Graduation Requirements: 22 PA. CODE § 4.24
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): 22 PA. CODE PART 1, SUBPT. A, CH4, APPENDIX E
Funding Mechanism: Lee Burket, Bureau of Career-Technical Education, Pennsylvania Department of Education

Rhode Island
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Elementary and Secondary Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No. However, all of the districts do offer career and technical education courses.
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Disribution and Logistics

The state does not have activity in all of the approved career clusters.

Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Sources

Title: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 16-7.1-19
Governing Body: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 16-45-C, R.I. CODE R. 08-010-001
Oversight: R.I. GEN. LAWS § 16-45-C, R.I. CODE R. 08-010-001
Required Program: Memorandum from Coordinator of Career and Technical Education, Rhode Island Department of Education, June 18, 2008
Career Clusters: Career Clusters and Pathways


South Carolina
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, Audio-Video Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Emphasis on Rigor: Department of education is to develop a curriculum, aligned with state content standards, organized around a career cluster system that must provide students with both strong academics and real-world problem solving skills. High school students must be provided guidance and curricula that will enable them to successfully complete their individual graduation plans, preparing them for a seamless transition to relevant employment, further training or postsecondary study.

Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Teachers must have a bachelor's degree and successful completion of the national Career Development Facilitator (CDF) certification training or be a certified guidance counselor who has completed the CDF certification training.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • All students must complete a career concentration/major/sequence
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, Tech Prep is available through the regional education centers.
Unique features of note South Carolina Education and Economic Development Act specifies that, during the 2007-08 school year, each public high school was to implement a career guidance program model or prototype as developed or approved by the state department of education.  At least annually after that, certified school guidance counselors and career specialists, under their supervision, must counsel students during the ninth and tenth grades to further define their career cluster goals and individual graduation plans.  Before the end of the second semester of their tenth grade, students are to have declared an area of academic focus within a cluster of study. Throughout their high school career, students are to be provided guidance activities and career awareness programs that combine counseling on career options and experiential learning with academic planning to assist students in fulfilling their individual graduation plans. In order to maximize the number of clusters offered, a school district is to ensure that each high school within the district offers a variety of clusters. A student may transfer to a high school offering a career cluster not offered by the high school in his attendance zone.
Sources Governing Body: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-53-20
Oversight: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-53-20
Required Program: S.C. CODE ANN. REGS. 43-259
Career Clusters: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-59-50
Quality Control Mechanism
--Emphasis on Rigor:
 S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-59-20
Teaching Quality: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-59-100
Graduation Requirements: S.C. CODE ANN. REGS. 43-259
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-59-180
Unique Features: S.C. CODE ANN. § 59-59-110

South Dakota
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Office of Career and Technical Education, State Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified Not set in policy. However, in practice the state has identified:

  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech Focus on labor market needs of health science, STEM, and programs that align with postsecondary opportunities.
Industry certification programs in information technology and ProStart for the hospitality industry.
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality In partnerships with local school districts, the state promotes the use of the following industry assessments:
  • ProStart
  • A+
  • CCNA/Networking
  • Cisco
  • C-Tech
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: Beginning with Perkins IV, every approved program in the state must complete a written program improvement process instrument. The instrument focuses on the following seven areas:
  • Student engagement
  • Rigorous coursework
  • Working in cooperation with other programs, academics and business/industry
  • Use of program of study
  • Career guidance
  • Equipment and facilities
  • Holistic improvement planning process

The state completes an onsite formal review of those programs considered "at risk".  The state will also visit programs with new instructors and those receiving grants.

Emphasis on Rigor: State is implementing a program of study in which 'core' standards are developed for every course. Career cluster knowledge and skill statements are used as a guide to develop the courses. The committee developing the standards is composed of secondary educators, business/industry partners and postsecondary instructors.

Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: State funds are available on a competitive basis.

Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Teachers must be certified, or working towards certification, in the content area they are teaching.

State has an alternate route to certification for instructors with a non-education bachelor's degree to become fully certified. There is also a certification process for individuals who do not have a bachelor's degree but would like to teach career and technical courses.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) State funds are available to career and technical education programs through a line item in the state department of education budget.
Unique features of note A Minnesota-South Dakota Public Vocational Education Reciprocity Agreement has been established to provide greater educational opportunities and services to the citizens of the two states with the specific aims of enhancing accessibility to programs, expanding the range of programs available, and promoting the greater economy of state finances through cooperative planning to avoid duplication of programs.  The South Dakota Board of Education and the Minnesota Higher Education Coordinating Board are responsible for the administration of the agreement.

Schools are to provide students opportunities to complete a senior project and develop student internships in broad career fields.  The intent is to make high school education engaging and relevant to students' goals.
Sources Governing Body: Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
Oversight: Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
Required Program: S.D. ADMIN. R. 24:43:11:07
Career Clusters: Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
Industry Assessment Tools: Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process: 
Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
--Emphasis on Rigor: S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-1-12.1
--Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
Graduation Requirements: S.D. ADMIN. R. 24:43:11:02, 24:43:11:07
Teaching Quality: S. D. ADMIN. R. 24:15:03:03
Funding Mechanism: Mark Wilson, Director, Office of Career and Technical Education, South Dakota Department of Education
Unique Features: S.D. CODIFIED LAWS § 13-53B-2

Tennessee
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education and Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education and Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Unique features of note 2007 legislation required the state council for career and technical education to conduct a study to determine proper methods for integrating career and technical education courses and to report its findings and recommendations to the chair of the education committees for the house and the senate and the general assembly by February 1, 2008. The report was presented.  No legislative activity has occurred to date.
Sources Title: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-1-202 
Governing Body: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-1-302
Oversight: TENN. CODE ANN. § 49-1-302, TENN. COMP. R. & REGS. 0520-1-3-.05
Required Program: TENN. COMP. R. & REGS. 0520-1-3-.05(j)
Career Clusters: Career Clusters and Programs of Study
Graduation Requirements: TENN. COMP. R. & REGS. 0520-1-3-.05(j)
Unique Features: Ralph Barnett, Assistant Commissioner for Career Technical Education, Tennessee Department of Education

Texas
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technology Education, soon to be changed in state law and rule to Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Texas Education Agency and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes, districts must offer courses selected from at least three career and technical education areas.
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech The governor has identified six industry clusters for economic growth:
  • Advanced Technologies and Manufacturing
  • Aerospace and Defense
  • Biotechnology and Life Sciences
  • Information and Computer Technology
  • Petroleum Refining and Chemical Products
  • Energy
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality While not established in state policy, students are encouraged to seek industry certification.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: State Performance Based Monitoring Accountability System is in place for CTE. Districts must annualy evaluate their career and technical education programs.
Emphasis on Rigor: Enacted 2007 legislation promoted a career and technical curriculum to fulfill high school and postsecondary education requirements by creating a new review panel for career and technical education curriculum under the Texas Education Agency. Bill requires the state board of education to revise the essential knowledge and skills of the career and technical education curriculum by September 1, 2009.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) State law requires career and technical education teachers to be certified in the field they teach. Texas supports both traditional teacher preparation programs and alternative certification programs.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes.  A tech-prep consortium, which is a regional collaboration of school districts, institutions of higher education, businesses, labor organizations and other participants work together to effectively implement a regional tech-prep program which combines at least two years of secondary education with at least two years of postsecondary education in a nonduplicative, sequential course of study based on the recommended high school program adopted by the state board of education.  The program of study should:
  • Integrate academic instruction and vocational and technical instruction
  • Use work-based and work-site learning where available and appropriate
  • Provide technical preparation in a career field such as engineering technology, applied science, a mechanical, industrial or practical art or trade, agriculture, health occupations, business or applied economics
  • Build student competence in mathematics, science, reading, writing, communications, economics, and workplace skills through applied, contextual academics and integrated instruction in a coherent sequence of courses
  • Lead to an associate degree, two-year postsecondary certificate or postsecondary two-year apprenticeship with provisions for students to continue toward completion of a baccalaureate degree
  • Lead to placement in appropriate employment or to further education.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) State weighed funding for students enrolled in career and technical education courses of 1.35
Sources Governing Body: TEX. CODE ANN. § 7.109
Oversight: TEX. CODE ANN. § 7.109
Required Program: TEX. ADMIN. CODE § 74.3
Career Clusters: TEX. CODE ANN. § 61.852, AchieveTexas
Statewide Emphasis/Focus: Governor's Press Initiatives
Industry Assessment Tools: Karen Batchelor, State Director of Career and Technical Education
Quality Control Mechanism
--Program Approval/Review Process:
TEX. CODE ANN. § 7.028, TEX. CODE ANN. § 39.073
--Emphasis on Rigor: TEX. CODE ANN. § 28.0022
Teaching Quality: Karen Batchelor, State Director of Career and Technical Education
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): TEX. CODE ANN. §§ 61.851, 61.852, 61.853, 61.854, 61.855
Funding Mechanism: TEX. CODE ANN. § 42.154

Utah
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Office of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified State has not adopted the 16 national career clusters. 
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Notes/Citation: Beginning with 2010-2011 school year, one credit of career and technical education will be required from eight career clusters: Agriculture; business; family and consumer sciences; health science and technology; information technology; marketing; technology and engineering education; and, trade and technical education.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) State provides additional funding for 20 career and technical education students or up to 25 students if the program is shared between two schools.
Sources Governing Body: UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-911-3
Oversight: UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-911-1
Required Program: UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-700-6
Career Clusters: Utah CTE State Profile
Graduation Requirements: UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-700-6
Funding Mechanism: UTAH ADMIN. CODE R277-9111-4

Vermont
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body State Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education and Vermont Advisory Council on Technical Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Manufacturing
  • Logistics, Transportation and Distribution Services
  • Information Technology Services
  • Wholesale/Retail Sales and Services
  • Financial Services
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Business
  • Health Services
  • Human Services
  • Arts and Communications
  • Legal and Protective Services
  • Scientific Research, Engineering and Technical Services
  • Education and Training
  • Public Administration/Government Services
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs: For programs to receive career and technical education funding in Vermont, the career and technical education program must either: result in industry certification; meet industry-approved standards for curriculum, facilities and instruction; or offer dual credit from a higher education partner.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) 2007 legislation amended rules on career and technical educator licensing. The purpose of the changes to the endorsements are:
  • Break down the wall between regular education and career and technical education in suport of the broader goal of integrated secondary education;
  • Streamline the process of qualifying for career and technical education endorsement, including recognizing that both formal postsecondary education and work experience are important components of preparation; and
  • Eliminate the duplication among current career and technical education endorsements.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Sources Governing Body: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 16 § 1531
Oversight: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 16 § 1531
Required Program: VT. CODE R. 22-000-007
Career Clusters: VT. CODE R. 22-000-007
Quality Control Mechanism
--Funding to Purchase/Adopt Rigorous Programs:
VT. CODE R. 22-000-007-2380
Teaching Quality: VT. STAT. ANN. tit. 16 § 59, -164(5), -1691a, -1692, 1695, -1697, -1792(a), -1751




Virginia
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Board of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education, Office of Career and Technical Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes, all districts must offer a minimum of three programs in career and technical education.
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Statewide emphasis/focus on specific area(s) such as high tech
  • State's career and technical education plan emphasizes science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and the state is currently in the process of beginning six Governor's Career and Technical STEM Academies.
  • High performance manufacturing
  • High academic and technical skills
  • Statewide articulation agreements with community colleges
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Students seeking a Career and Technical Education Seal are required to complete a prescribed sequence of courses in career and technical education and maintain a "B" or better average in those courses or pass an examination of an occupational competency assessment that confers certification or occupational competency credential from a recognized industry, trade or professional association.

In addition, the board may permit students completing career and technical education programs designed to enable the student to pass such industry certification examinations or state licensure examinations to be awarded the appropriate verified units of credit for one or more career and technical education classes. Students take industry-specific assessments or certification exams where applicable.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Program Approval/Review Process: New programs and courses must be approved by the Office of Career and Technical Education and provide documentation of ongoing student interest and workforce opportunities.  All programs are subject to federal program monitoring conducted by the Office of Career and Technical Education.
Certificate of Mastery: State board of education has approved 175 credentials for 72 different career and technical education courses and/or course sequences.  Student assessment for credentials are provided by the National Occupational Competency Institute.
Emphasis on Rigor: The requirements set by the state board of education for a technical diploma must meet or exceed the requirements for a standard diploma and include concentration in career and technical education. Individuals from industry and business are included in the design of the programs. All programs are based on national or industry standards. The state has mandated career and technical education curriculum.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) State policy requires teachers to be certified in the field they teach. Teachers may substitute experience in business and industry for college degree in certain career and technical education programs.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
  • State-level career/technical diploma or endorsement is available
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, a Tech Prep program
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Categorical funding and enhanced FTE for career and technical education student/teacher ratio.
Unique features of note 2007 legislation requires local school boards to include in their annual report to the board of education the number of students who have met the requirements for a career and technical concentration or specialization and all requirements for high school graduation or an approved alternative education program.  

Governor Kaine has launched an initiative to develop Governor's Career and Technical Academies to offer more options to acquire the skills necessary for technical careers.  The first six Governor's Academies were named in early 2008 and are: Agricultural Science Academy; Governor's Academy for Innovation, Technology and Engineering; Governor's Career and Technical Academy that will integrate STEM in five focus areas of automotive, digital media, information technology, emergency medical services and engineering; Fostering Innovation and Relevance Through STEM and Trades (FIRST); Pathways Academy with hands-on instruction for middle school students; Stafford Career and Technical Academy with a focus on information technology, math and engineering.

To earn the state board's Career and Technical Education Seal, a student must either maintain a "B" average while completing a specific sequence of courses in a career technical education concentration or pass an exam in a field from the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Virginia Career Readiness Program is a governor's initiative and is overseen by the governor's office and the Virginia Community College System.  The certificate is based on the established WorkKeys assessment tests.  To earn the certificate, individuals undergo testing related to reading, applied math, and locating information through the WorkKeys skills assessment system. 

State policy provides that private-school and home-schooled students may participate in district career and technical education programs.
Sources

Title: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-199.1
Governing Body: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-227
Oversight: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-23.1
Required Program: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-50; VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-253.13:4
Career Clusters: Career Clusters in Virginia
Statewide Emphasis: Elizabeth Russell, Director of the Office of Career and Technical Education Services, Virginia Department of Education
Industry Assessment Tools: VA. CODE ANN. §§ 22.1-227.1, 22.1-253.13:4
Quality Control Mechanism 
--Program Approval/Review Process:  
VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-199.1
--Certificate of Mastery: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-50; VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-263.13:4
--Emphasis on Rigor: VA. CODE ANN. §§ 22.1-227.1, 22.1-253.13:4
Teaching Quality: Elizabeth Russell, Director of the Office of Career and Technical Education Services, Virginia Department of Education
Graduation Requirements: 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-50; VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-253.13:4
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Elizabeth Russell, Director of the Office of Career and Technical Education Services, Virginia Department of Education
Funding Mechanism: Elizabeth Russell, Director of the Office of Career and Technical Education Services, Virginia Department of Education
Unique Features: VA. CODE ANN. § 22.1-253.13:4, 8 VA. ADMIN. CODE § 20-131-50, Governor's Press Release


Washington
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality The superintendent of public instruction is to develop a list of approved career and technical education programs that qualify for the alternative assessment for career and technical students. Programs on the list must meet the following minimum criteria:
  • Lead to a certificate or credential that is state or nationally recognized by trades, industries, or other professional associations as necessary for employment or advancement in that field
  • Require a sequenced progression of multiple courses, both exploratory and preparatory, that are vocationally intensive and rigorous
  • Have a high potential for providing the program completer with gainful employment or entry into a postsecondary workforce training program.

All public high schools in the state are to provide a program, directly or in cooperation with a community or technical college, a skills center, an apprenticeship committee, or another school district, for students who plan to pursue career or work opportunities rather than entrance to a baccalaureate-granting institution after being granted a high school diploma. These programs may:

  • Help students demonstrate the application of essential academic learning requirements to the world of work, occupation-specific skills, knowledge of more than one career in a chosen pathway, and employability and leadership skills
  • Help students demonstrate the knowledge and skill needed to prepare for industry certification, and/or have the opportunity to articulate to postsecondary education and training programs.
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Emphasis on Rigor: Courses must be equivalent to academic core courses.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt)

Yes, state policy requires the candidate to:

  • Hold a baccalaureate degree which includes a minimum of 45 quarter hours of study in the specific career and technical education subject area for which certification is sought;
  • Complete a state approved career and technical education teacher training program through a regionally accredited college or university which includes completion of student teaching in the relevant career and technical education subject area;
  • Provide documentation of one year of paid occupational experience in the specific career and technical education subject area for which certification is sought; and
  • Demonstrate competency in knowledge and skills.

For continuing certification the candidate must complete one of the following:

  • Six quarter hours or sixty clock hours of career and technical education educator training;
  • Three quarter hours or thirty clock hours of career and technical education educator training and three quarter hours or thirty clock hours of technical education/upgrading; or
  • Three quarter hours or thirty clock hours of career and technical education educator training and three hundred hours of occupational experience.

Candidates seeking certification on the basis of business and industry work experience must: 

  • Provide documentation of three years of paid occupational experience in the specific career and technical education subcategory for which they are seeking certification;
  • Complete a professional educator standards board approved program in which they demonstrate competence in the general standards for all career and technical education teacher certificate candidates which includes knowledge and skills in teaching methods, school law, issues related to abuse, safety, occupational analysis, course organization and curriculum design, philosophy of vocational education, personal student development and leadership techniques.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Yes, Tech Prep and other similar programs
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) FTE for career and technical education students, also a state incentive grant for increased enrollment in vocational skill centers programs.
Sources Governing Body: WASH. REV. CODE § 28C.04.100
Oversight: WASH. REV. CODE § 28C.04.100
Required Program: WASH. ADMIN. CODE § 180-51-061
Career Clusters: National Association of Sate Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for Washington
Industry Assessment Tools: WASH. REV. CODE §§ 28C.04.110, 28A.230.130
Quality Control Mechanism
--Emphasis on Rigor:
WASH. REV. CODE §§ 28A.230.087, 28C.04.110
Teaching Quality: WASH. ADMIN. CODE §§ 181-77-031, 181-77-041
Graduation Requirements: WASH. ADMIN. CODE § 180-51-061
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): WASH. REV. CODE §§ 28A.600.160, 28A.300.118, 28A.600.300
Funding Mechanism: WASH. ADMIN. CODE §392-121-465

West Virginia
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career/Technical and Adult Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight State Board of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Business/Marketing
  • Engineering/Technical
  • Fine Arts/Humanities
  • Health Services
  • Human Services
  • Science/Natural Resources
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
  • Student may substitute an approved CTE course for a standard core course to meet high school graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Unique features of note Any student who completes an approved career/technical concentration and obtains a passing score on ACT WorkKeys assessments will receive a work readiness credential.
Sources Governing Body: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for West Virginia
Oversight: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for West Virginia
Required Program: W.VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-42-6
Career Clusters: W.Va. Board of Education Policy 2510
Graduation Requirements: W.VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-42-6
Unique Features: W.VA. CODE ST. R. § 126-42-13

Wisconsin
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Technical Education
Governing body Department of Public Instruction
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Public Instruction
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program No information available
Career clusters the state has identified
  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality A process has been created to certify the science knowledge acquired by high school students in certain agricultural education classes. The Department of Public Instruction worked with the University of Wisconsin institutions and other campuses in the state to ensure that the certification will be widely accepted for the purposes of admission to colleges and technical institutions. The Agriculture-Science Equivalent Credit Option leads school districts through a standardized method for evaluating the rigor of the science content in agricultural education classes. Once the local educators complete the process the district may apply for official agriculture-science credit equivalency from the department.
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) No
Sources Governing Body: National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's State Profile for Wisconsin
Oversight: WIS. ADMIN. CODE § 8.01
Required Program: WIS. ADMIN. CODE § 18.03
Career Clusters: Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
Industry Assessment Tools: Department of Public Instruction news release of 2/25/08

Wyoming
Career/Technical Education
Title of program (i.e., Career and Technical Education) Career and Technical Education
Governing body Department of Education
Agency or agencies providing program oversight Department of Education
Districts/high schools required to provide CTE program Yes
Career clusters the state has identified To help organize their secondary education programs, school districts are encouraged to voluntarily adopt or adapt the following clusters:

  • Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
  • Architecture and Construction
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communications
  • Business, Management and Administration
  • Education and Training
  • Finance
  • Government and Public Administration
  • Health Science
  • Hospitality and Tourism
  • Human Services
  • Information Technology
  • Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security
  • Manufacturing
  • Marketing, Sales and Service
  • Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
  • Transportation, Distribution and Logistics
Employability skill assessment tools are used to ensure program quality Wyoming will incorporate business and industry standards currently being developed into technical skills assessment in career and technical education which is currently being developed. This will be implemented via the Perkins Five-Year Plan (2008-2013)
Quality control mechanism(s) (program approval/review process, certificate of mastery, system emphasis on rigor, funding for districts to purchase/adopt rigorous progams of study, etc.) Emphasis on Rigor: Legislature has enacted a "success curriculum" which includes high school graduation requirements. Career and technical education is included in the "success curriculum". Assessments include the use of WorkKeys.
Teaching quality components (i.e., demonstrated expertise in field; waive bachelor's degree reqt) Teachers in Wyoming must be endorsed/certified within the area in which they teach. People without a career and technical education endorsement may teach in a high school if they have two years of experience in the area being taught and create a professional development plan to guide advancement toward a four year degree and certification.
Graduation requirements
  • Students must choose between CTE and another course option to meet graduation requirements
Tech Prep or similar focus (2+2) Dual or concurrent enrollment courses in Wyoming are prevalent.  Seventy percent of the dual enrollment courses are in career and technical education. The title "Tech Prep" will not be used after this school year; however, the concept continues in the five-year plan under Programs of Study between secondary and postsecondary institutions.
Funding mechanisms (i.e., enhanced FTE for CTE students, a line item, special grants, etc.) Enhanced FTE for career and technical education students (1.29 weight for each FTE student in CTE).
Unique features of note In addition to completing the state-set graduation high school graduation requirements, students must demonstrate proficiency in each of the state standards, including career and technical education. Proficiency is determined with completion of the school district's "Body of Evidence" (BOE). Students must meet the proficiency requirement for career and technical education in the BOE.
Sources Required Program: CODE OF WY. RULES 005-000-031
Career Clusters: Wyoming's Career Clusters
Quality Control Mechanism
--Emphasis on Rigor: 
WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-16-1307
Teaching Quality: WYO. ADMIN. PROCEDURE ACT W.S. §§ 16-3-101 - 16-3-115, 21-2-801 - 21-2-802
Graduation Requirements: WYO. STAT. ANN. § 21-2-304, WYO. CODE OF WY. RULES 005-000-031
Linkage to Postsecondary (Tech Prep): Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Five-Year Plan
Funding Mechanism: WYO. STAT. ANN. §§ 21-13-309(D), 21-13-329, 21-2-202(a)(xxvi), 21-2-202(a)(xxvii), 16-3-103; CODE OF WY. RULES 005-000-037

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