Advanced Placement: State Programs and Funding for Teacher Training

Advanced Placement: State Programs and Funding for Teacher Training

Advanced Placement (AP), first established in 1955 as a program for gifted students, has seen tremendous growth since the 1990s. This database provides information on state policies and programs to support AP offerings in the states.

State programs and funding for teacher training: AP teachers need to be trained in the content and skills tested on AP exams to help them prepare their students for these assessments. State programs – and dedicated funding – for teacher preparation and professional development can ensure that the course content lives up to the expectations of the AP program and adequately prepares students for AP exams. This data set consists of the following state policies and programs, including those supported through federal and National Governors Association (NGA) Honor State grants:
  • Programs providing funds to cover tuition and other expenses associated with AP and pre-AP training and professional development. ECS has identified 27 states that make funds available for AP teachers to attend AP training.
  • State policies mandating that AP and pre-AP teachers complete program-specific training and professional development. Five states -- Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi and South Carolina -- require AP teachers to complete AP training.

This information was collected from statutes, state board regulations and and state education agency Web sites and was last fully updated in 2006. Limited information is included on federal AP programs; for details on states receiving funding through the U.S. Department of Education's Advanced Placement Incentive Program, please visit the department Web site.

ECS plans to update this database in the near future. In the meantime, please contact Jennifer Dounay Zinth at 303.299.3689 or with questions regarding state policies on this issue.

Sources for all data points are accessible through this link.

State programs and funding for teacher training
Alabama Yes. In the 2006-2007 school year, the Alabama Department of Education is offering districts competitive grants to cover up to 250 scholarships for teachers, counselors and administrators to attend AP workshops and institutes. Each grantee district will be reimbursed up to $1,300 per teacher, counselor or administrator. "Funds can be used to offset the cost of tuition, travel and stipends."

Funds received from the National Governors Association (NGA) are being used to support professional development activities for AP teachers, counselors and administrators in select high schools around the state with high concentrations of minority and low-income students.
Alaska No
Arizona Yes. The Options for Excellence program at Arizona State University provides AP teacher mentoring and training.
Arkansas Yes. At least once every 5 years, AP teachers must attend a College Board Advanced Placement Summer Institute, and pre-AP teachers must attend a College Board sponsored or endorsed training institute or workshop in the teacher's content area. An AP or pre-AP teacher who does not complete this requirement will complete an Additional Training Plan (ATP) for AP or pre-AP, and will have 3 years to complete the training. AP and pre-AP teachers may receive up to $650 each to cover cost of tuition, expenses and materials of approved training programs. Priority given to teachers who have not previously been trained. A teacher assigned to teach more than one AP or pre-AP area (i.e., biology, chemistry, etc.) may apply for more than one teacher training stipend.

In addition, a student may receive a weighted grade in an AP course only if the AP course teacher meets Arkansas teacher licensure requirements and either (1) Attends a College Board AP Summer Institute at least once every 5 years or (2) Completes an additional training plan for AP within 3 years of beginning the additional training plan; or meets Arkansas teacher licensure requirements and attends the training required by the organization.
California Yes. The High School Mathematics Professional Development Institutes are to provide instruction in the teaching of math in a manner consistent with the standard for a comprehensive research-based math instruction program. Institutes must provide instruction in topics commonly found in high school math courses, including, but not limited to, geometry, algebra II, trigonometry, and calculus, that will enhance the ability of teachers to prepare students for state math assessments, the California High School Exit Exam, and AP and college coursework.
Colorado No
Connecticut Yes. According to the Connecticut State Department of Education Web site, Connecticut provides state funds for AP teacher professional development.
Delaware Yes. In 2005, the Delaware Department of Education formed a partnership with districts to help cover costs for AP teachers to attend the Lewes AP Summer Institute in the state. Through the partnership, the Department covers half the registration fee, with the district paying the remaining balance. Eighty-six teachers participated in the partnership in 2006.
District of Columbia No
Florida Yes. The Florida Partnership for Minority and Underrepresented Student Achievement is mandated to provide AP and other advanced course teachers with training and professional development in content knowledge and instructional skills. The partnership must annually report to the Florida Department of Education the number of teachers trained and the effectiveness of the training.
Georgia The Georgia Department of Education provides workshops for teachers, counselors and administrators on PSAT, AP and SAT. However, the workshops appear to provide information about AP rather than content and pedagogical techniques.

In 2006, the state board made a competitive grant available to districts to support AP teacher training during the summer of 2006 for teachers in schools that offered the least number of AP courses during the 2005-2006 school year. Up to $2,500 per teacher was available to cover costs of training expenses, including registration, travel, lodging and a $1,000 participation stipend.

In addition, funds received from the National Governors Association (NGA) are being used to provide professional development for AP teachers, administrators and counselors in select schools and districts with high concentrations of low-income and minority students.
Hawaii No
Idaho No
Illinois Yes. Legislation directs AP teachers to obtain appropriate training and the state board to "establish clear, specific and challenging training guidelines" requiring AP teachers to obtain College Board-endorsed AP training. AP training for AP and pre-AP teachers "must do all of the following: (1) Provide teachers of Advanced Placement and teachers in courses that lead to Advanced Placement with the necessary content knowledge and instructional skills to prepare students for success in Advanced Placement courses and examinations and other advanced course examinations and mastery of postsecondary course content. (2) Provide administrators, including principals and counselors, with professional development that will enable them to create strong and effective Advanced Placement programs in their schools. (3) Provide middle grade, junior high, and high school teachers with Advanced Placement Vertical Team training and other Pre-Advanced Placement professional development that prepares students for success in Advanced Placement courses. (4) Support the implementation of an instructional program for students in grades 6 through 12 that provides an integrated set of instructional materials, diagnostic assessments, and teacher professional development in reading, writing, and mathematics that prepares all students for enrollment and success in Advanced Placement courses and in college."

2005 legislation also directs the state board to "seek federal funding through the Advanced Placement Incentive Program and the Math-Science Partnership Program and use it to support Advanced Placement and Pre-Advanced Placement teacher professional development...."
Indiana Yes. Out of funds appropriated to the department of education to implement the AP program, the state gives second priority (out of five) to paying for math and science AP teachers to attend College Board summer training institutes.
Iowa Yes. Statute establishes an AP summer program at the state university of Iowa to train AP teachers. The university is "responsible for the development of appropriate curricula, course offerings, provision of qualified instructors, and the selection of participants for the program. If funds are appropriated for the program, those funds shall be used to pay for the cost of providing instructors, counselors, room and board for students and teachers attending the program, [and] materials...." If funds appropriated are not sufficient to meet program participation demands, first priority must be given to teachers from schools that do not have AP programs.
Kansas No
Kentucky Yes. Statute directs the state board, upon receipt of adequate federal funding, by December 31, 2002, to
(1) expand AP teacher training institutes, "including offering advanced placement teacher training instruction and assistance through the Kentucky Virtual High School or in conjunction with the Council on Postsecondary Education through the Kentucky Virtual University;" and
(2) require teachers planning to participate in the AP teacher training and complete such training at Department-facilitated AP institutes to sign an agreement to teach at least 1 AP course in a public school or the Kentucky Virtual High School when assigned by the school principal.

Each high school is required to have a policy on recruiting and assigning students to AP courses. The policy must ensure teachers assigned to AP courses are "certified in the appropriate content area and prepared through professional development to teach the advanced placement course."

Funds received from the National Governors Association (NGA) are being used to provide professional development to AP teachers, administrators and counselors in select schools in the state with high minority and/or low-income student populations.
Louisiana No
Maine Funds received from the National Governors Association (NGA) are being used to offer professional development for AP teachers, administrators and counselors in select schools and districts in the state.
Maryland No
Massachusetts Yes. Through the state's Advanced Placement Incentive Program (APIP) grant from the U.S. Department of Education, the state offers summer AP Teacher Institutes to teachers in high schools in which at least 40% of students qualify for free or reduced lunch. According to the 2006 materials, "Scholarships will cover course and lab fees and on-campus housing for teachers traveling 60 or more miles from home to the Fitchburg State College campus. Students must pay the cost of graduate credits attempted."
Michigan According to the department of education Web site, various institutions in the state provide summer AP teacher institutes. However, ECS was unable to identify state programs to cover teacher participation costs.
Minnesota Yes. "The state may pay a portion of the tuition, room, board, and out-of-state travel costs" for a teacher "or other interested educator" to participate in a College Board training program. The commissioner is responsible for selecting teachers to participate in the training program, and determining the amount of the subsidy. The commissioner procedures must, to the extent possible, ensure the availability of AP courses in all parts of the state and that a variety of course offerings are available in districts.

In addition, the commissioner must "provide support programs during the school year for teachers who attended the training programs and teachers experienced in teaching" AP courses. The support program must "provide teachers with opportunities to share instructional ideas with other teachers. The state may pay the costs of participating in the support programs, including substitute teachers if necessary, and program affiliation costs."

Funds from the competitive grant program to expand AP access may be used for teacher training to better serve students, "including low-income and other disadvantaged students," participating in AP and pre-AP programs, or to "hire appropriately licensed personnel to teach additional" AP courses. Public and nonpublic AP teachers attending FY06 in-depth training in Minnesota are eligible for $625 scholarships to cover tuition and $100 to cover room and board. Teachers attending out-of-state training may have their expenses reimbursed up to $1,200.
Mississippi Yes. Statute directs the state board of education to "establish clear, specific and challenging training guidelines that require" AP and pre-AP teachers to obtain a recognized AP authority endorsed training. Beginning with the 2007-2008 school year, every AP teacher "must have completed the College Board endorsed AP Summer Institute (APSI) for the course and must have obtained the AP certification through the Mississippi Department of Education's Office of Educator Licensure. ... Teachers with the AP certification must comply with [AP] licensure renewal guidelines. AP teachers must complete the AP Summer Institute (APSI) at least every five years, which can be used for licensure renewal if completed during the validity period." An exception is provided for teachers who have served with the Educational Testing Service as AP exam readers. Board regulations likewise require that, beginning in the 2007-2008 school year, a district offering pre-AP courses to submit a pre-Advanced Placement Program Proposal to the state department of education. The proposal must indicate the College Board training pre-AP teachers will receive. "Each teacher planning to teach a pre-AP course must have completed the College Board's pre-AP Summer Institute, Vertical Teams Training, the pre-AP Workshop, or other training specifically designed for pre-AP teachers. The district is responsible for providing documentation (when requested) of participation in the pre-AP training."
Missouri Yes. The state funds AP teacher training sites at 2 universities in the state.
Montana Yes. The office of public instruction offers Advanced Placement Incentive Program grants to support AP teacher training and online teacher training to AP and pre-AP instructors in high schools and middle schools whose student population is at least 40% free- and reduced-lunch eligible. A high school or middle school may also be eligible for a grant if the student population at the feeder elementary school is at least 40% free/reduced lunch.
Nebraska No
Nevada National Governors Association (NGA) and federal Advanced Placement Incentive Program (APIP) funds are used to help cover AP teacher training costs in targeted minority and low-income schools. NGA funds are likewise being used to train counselors and administrators about the AP program, recruit more minority teachers to teach AP and encourage high school students to become teachers.
New Hampshire No
New Jersey No
New Mexico Yes. Districts and charter schools are authorized to develop "core curriculum frameworks to provide high quality curricula in kindergarten through grade six to prepare students for pre-advanced placement and advanced placement coursework in grades seven through twelve." A framework must include "in-depth professional development for teachers that includes vertical teaming in content areas," among other components. A district or charter school may apply to the public education department for a grant to support its core curriculum framework.

In addition, the state has appropriated $542,000 to support AP professional development services in the 2006-2007 school year, and has released an RFP for universities in the state to provide summer institutes in June 2007.
New York No
North Carolina No
North Dakota No
Ohio No
Oklahoma Yes. Schools may be awarded a one-time "equipment and/or instructional materials grant" of up to $5,000 to provide an AP course. A school receiving a grant must "provide the College Board training within one year of the grant award, including at least a one-week summer institute." Teachers must additionally be encouraged to attend annual follow-up training.

Statute defines an AP "vertical team" as "a group of middle school or junior high school and high school educators in a given discipline who work cooperatively to develop and implement a vertically aligned program aimed at helping students acquire the academic skills necessary for success in the advanced placement program...." The state board is authorized to provide schools with subsidized training for pre-AP courses, and grants for schools to develop AP vertical teams.

The state board is also authorized to award schools subsidized training for AP courses.
Oregon No
Pennsylvania No
Rhode Island No
South Carolina Yes. The South Carolina Department of Education funds and coordinates AP teacher training courses. An AP teacher must "have completed the appropriate Advanced Placement three graduate hour training program verified by the appropriate college or university." However, newly assigned AP teachers have one calendar year to complete their training. Waivers on the training requirement are available to teachers who hold a Ph.D. in their subject area or "who have served with Educational Testing Service as readers for the AP exams[.]"
South Dakota Yes. The department of education provides funds for public school AP teachers to attend summer institutes.
Tennessee No
Texas Yes. An AP or pre-AP teacher may receive a subsidy of up to $450 for teacher training endorsed or sponsored by the College Board.
Utah Yes. Districts may use state AP funds for staff development, including "stipends for tuition and living expenses connected with the pursuit of additional training on specified Advanced Placement curriculum taught by the teacher[.]" Districts may also allocate state AP funds "to pay a teacher directly involved in a small group or individual tutorial as an extra assignment in a small school or with a limited number of students who are able and willing to take an Advanced Placement course[.] ... Funds are distributed on the basis of the following: the total funds designated for the Advanced Placement Program are divided by the total number of Advanced Placement exams passed with a grade of 3 or higher by students in the public schools of Utah. This results in a fixed amount of dollars per exam passed. Each participating school district receives that amount for each exam successfully passed by one of its students."
Vermont No
Virginia National Governors Association (NGA) Honor State funds are being used to offer up to three $1,000 scholarships in each honor school to teachers of AP or dual enrollment courses. Scholarship funds can help cover "tuition, room, board, and travel expenses to attend AP training institutes in teacher subject areas .... Up to two scholarships may be used in 2005-2006, with remainder used in 2006-2007."
Washington The state uses federal funds from two Advanced Placement Incentive Program grants to provide subgrants to selected schools and districts to train teachers. All participating schools/districts have at least 40% of their students on free/reduced lunch. Funds are also targeted to schools designated 97-100% rural by the 2000 U.S. census.
West Virginia Yes. The state board is mandated to "establish a program coordinated through the colleges and universities or some other entity" to provide training to AP teachers. Local boards must, "if necessary," make arrangements for teachers to attend a training program.

In addition, legislation creates the West Virginia Advanced Placement Center, which is to (1) coordinate AP teacher training institutes; (2) establish "a cadre of instructors" for the AP teacher training institutes; (3) offer "follow-up teacher training" for AP teachers; (4) identify and obtain "external sources of funding;" and (5) network AP teachers through an AP newsletter, among other responsibilities.
Wisconsin State is using NGA Honor State monies to provide ongoing training for AP teachers and coordinators, administrators and counselors in select schools.
Wyoming No
American Samoa No information located
Guam No information located
Puerto Rico No information located

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