|What are the requirements for teacher training and professional development in reading?||Citations|
|Alabama||Not specified in statute, rules or regulations.|
|Alaska||Not specified in statute, rules or regulations.|
|Arizona||Professional Development: Districts and charters that offer K-3 shall provide teacher training in scientifically based reading research.||Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 15-704|
|Arkansas||Professional Development: As part of the statewide program to improve reading skills, in-service training programs are provided by reading specialists for elementary teachers who require special assistance in improving their skills in teaching reading, in-service training for elementary principals to improve their skills in the support of reading programs. Training includes: classroom observation, the use of student inventories, planning instruction, tailored reading activities, and parental involvement ideas, among other strategies.||Ark. Code Ann. § 6-17-701|
|California||Teacher preparation: First time credential applicants who will be responsible for reading instruction must take the reading instruction competence assessment. All teacher preparation programs must offer instruction in the knowledge, skills and abilities required by the assessment.||Cal. Educ. Code § 44283|
|Colorado||Not specified in statute, rules or regulations.|
|Connecticut||Teacher preparation: In order to be eligible to receive an initial educator certificate with an early childhood-grade 3 or an elementary endorsement, each person is required to complete at least 6 semester hours of a reading instruction course.
Professional Development: Statewide reading plans for K-3 must include teacher training and reading performance tests aligned with teacher preparation courses and professional development activities. Professional development program for teachers and principals in scientifically based reading research and instruction shall be developed.
|Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 10-14v, Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 10-145b, Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 10-148b|
|Delaware||Teacher preparation: All approved educator preparation programs for prospective elementary school teachers must provide instruction and evidence-based best practices and strategies for teaching childhood literacy. Instructional concepts include: foundational concepts of oral and written learning, structure of language, learning disabilities, phonemic awareness, phonics and language acquisition.||14 Code Del. Regs. 290 3.3|
|District of Columbia||Not specified in statute, rules or regulations.|
|Florida||Teacher preparation: Scientifically-researched reading instruction is required.||Fla. Admin. Code Ann. r. 6A-5.066|
|Georgia||Teacher preparation: Educator preparation rules outline requirements and content standards for an optional reading endorsement program that prepare individuals to teach reading.||Ga Comp. R. & Regs. 505-3-.96|
|Hawaii||Teacher preparation: Educator preparation programs must provide evidence that their candidates are prepared to incorporate teaching of reading and working with students with reading difficulties into their practice.||Haw. Code R. 8-54-19|
|Idaho||Teacher preparation: All applicants must demonstrate competency in comprehensive literacy. Public higher education institutions are responsible for assessing teacher candidates.||Idaho Admin. Code r. 08.02.02.018|
|Illinois||Teacher preparation: Literacy standards for elementary teachers address foundational knowledge and instructional practices for elementary teachers.||Ill. Admin. Code tit. 23, § 20.110|
|Indiana||Teacher preparation: Any individual seeking to be licensed as an elementary school teacher must demonstrate proficiency in comprehensive scientifically-based reading instruction skills. Transition to teaching program requires at least 6 credit hours in reading instruction for elementary and P-3 teaching.||Ind. Code Ann. § 20-28-5-12;
Ind. Code Ann. § 20-28-4-4
511 Ind. Admin. Code 6.2-4-3
|Iowa||Teacher preparation: Each teacher candidate is required to demonstrate competency in literacy, the ability to integrate reading strategies, and demonstrate knowledge of the acquisition of literacy.
Professional Development: Subject to available funds, each school district shall provide professional development for teachers responding to students' reading issues and needs.
|Iowa Admin. Code r. 281-79.15(256);
Iowa Code Ann. § 279.68
|Kansas||Not specified in statute, rules, or regulation.||Kan. Admin. Regs. 91-1-230 through 236;
Kan. Admin. Regs. 91-1-217 through 218
|Kentucky||Teacher preparation: Literacy program requirements for educator preparation programs include instruction in reading standards and assessments.
Professional Development: The Kentucky Department of Education must provide assistance to schools and teachers to ensure student competency in reading.
|16 Ky. Admin. Regs. 5:060;
Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 158.840
|Louisiana||Teacher preparation: A portion of teacher preparation coursework must be dedicated to the teaching of reading and literacy.||28 La. Admin. Code Pt XLV, 743;
28 La. Admin. Code Pt CXLVII, 313
|Maine||Not specified in statute, rules, or regulation.||Code Me. R. tit. 05-071 Ch. 114, § 2;
Code Me. R. tit. 05-071 Ch. 118,, § 2
|Maryland||Teacher preparation: Early childhood teacher certifications require coursework on processes and acquisition of reading skills, best practices in reading instruction, and use of reading assessment data to improve instruction.||Md. Code Regs. 13A.12.02.03|
|Massachusetts||Not specified in statute, rules, or regulation.||603 Mass. Code Regs. 7.04;
603 Mass. Code Regs. 44.04
|Michigan||Teacher preparation: Elementary teaching certificates require coursework in the diagnosis and remediation of reading disabilities and differentiated instruction, as well as coursework in the teaching of literacy.
Professional Development: Districts awarded the 2017-2018 early literacy and reading skills grants may use 5% of funds to support professional development for educators related to current state literacy standards for K-3 students. Includes training in the use of diagnostic tools, progress monitoring and intervention methods. For a teacher in grades K to 3, targeted areas of professional development may be offered based on the reading development needs data for incoming pupils.
|Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 380.1531;
Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 388.1635a;
Mich. Admin. Code R 390.1123;
Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 380.1280f
|Minnesota||Teacher preparation: Elementary teacher programs must include instruction in the application of reading instruction programs that utilize interventions and remediation. (Language will be struck after July 2018).
Professional Development: Based on the reading assessments administered to students, districts must identify staff development needs so that teachers have training in instruction, assessment, intervention, and remediation.
|Minn. Stat. Ann. § 122A.18 Subd. 2a;
Minn. Stat. Ann. § 120B.12
|Mississippi||Teacher preparation: To obtain an elementary educator license, teacher candidates must pass a reading instruction and intervention test.
Professional Development: In-service training must include an emphasis on reading methods for all K-3 teachers. Subject to appropriations, low performing schools or districts may use data coaches to determine the effectiveness of data-focused professional development, to help teachers and district leaders build skills in using data to inform instruction.
|Miss. Code. Ann. § 37-3-2;
Miss. Code. Ann. § 37-3-105;
Miss. Code. Ann. § 37-177-7
|Missouri||Teacher preparation: Reading Instruction Act requires all new teachers who teach reading in kindergarten through third grade to receive training in the essential components of reading. The state board of education is required to develop guidelines for training teachers and administrators in how to assist students reading below grade level. Teacher candidates seeking an Elementary Education endorsement must demonstrate an understanding of early childhood principles in language arts, including reading.||Mo. Ann. Stat. § 170.014;
Mo. Code Regs. Ann. tit. 5, § 20-400.510
|Montana||Teacher preparation: Early Childhood Education programs require that successful candidates demonstrate knowledge of reading and writing processes.||Mont. Admin. R. 10.58.531|
|Nebraska||Teacher preparation: Teachers seeking an elementary education endorsement must complete 6 semester hours in communication, including literature, composition, and speech.||92 Neb. Admin. Code Ch. 24, 006|
|Nevada||Teacher preparation: To receive an elementary license, teachers must take nine semester hours of credit in methods of teaching of literacy or language arts.
Professional Development: Districts must ensure that teacher have access to high-quality, ongoing professional development in academic standards and curriculum as well as curriculum and instruction in English language development and literacy.
|Nev. Admin. Code 391.095;
Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 391A.370
|New Hampshire||Teacher preparation: Teacher preparation programs are expected to build awareness of best practices in recognizing characteristics of and evidence-based intervention and accommodation for dyslexia and related disorders. Candidates seeking an Elementary education certification are required to have skills, competencies, and knowledge in the areas of curriculum and assessment.
Professional Development: Teachers are required to develop and carry out individual professional development plans that focus on professional growth in a range of areas, including the development of knowledge with in content areas identified under the certification criteria. Areas of content development knowledge for elementary teachers includes english language arts, among other subjects.
|N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 200:61;
NH ADC ED 507.11;
NH ADC ED 512.03
|New Jersey||Professional Development: State Board of Education requires general education teachers in K-3 to complete at least 2 hours of professional development instruction on screening, intervention, accommodation, and use of technology for student with reading disabilities including dyslexia. Further professional development opportunities exist for teachers in Abbott districts, focusing on the elements of early literacy and assisting students with reading difficulty.||N.J. Stat. Ann. § 18A:6-131;
N.J. Admin. Code § 6A:13-3.4
|New Mexico||Teacher preparation: At least 3 hours in the teaching of reading in subject matter content is required, in addition to 24 to 36 semester hours in at least one teaching field including reading.
Professional Development: Professional development grant for K-3 Plus programs to provide professional development to teachers in early literacy research and its implications for instruction. Professional Development/Grant Program: The K-3 plus grant program provides additional professional development to K-3 plus teachers in how young children learn to read. Professional development to teachers and teacher assistants in early literacy research and its implications for instruction.
|N.M. Admin. Code 6.61.5;
N.M. Admin. Code 6.30.12;
N.M. Stat. Ann. § 22-13-28
|New York||Teacher preparation: As part of the required 30 semester hours in professional education Pre-K through grade six teacher candidates are required to complete six semester hours in the teaching of reading.||N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. 8, § 80-2.12|
|North Carolina||Teacher preparation: Elementary teacher preparation programs must include adequate coursework in the teaching of reading. Prior to licensure teachers must pass an assessment to evaluate their knowledge of scientifically based reading instruction. Training for elementary and special education must include instruction in early literacy intervention strategies and practices, including evidence-based assessment and diagnosis or reading difficulty.
Professional Development: As part of licensure renewal, elementary teachers must complete at least three continuing education credits related to literacy. Credits must include evidence-based assessments, diagnosis, and intervention strategies for students not demonstrating reading proficiency.
|N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 115C-269.20;
N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 115C-270.30
|North Dakota||Teacher preparation: Elementary teachers must complete at least 12 semester hours of coursework in teaching a range of elementary content, including reading and language arts.||N.D. Admin. Code 67.1-02-03-01|
|Ohio||Teacher preparation: Teacher candidates must receive instruction in the use of phonics as a technique in the teaching of reading in kindergarten through third grade as part of minimum state standards as prescribed by the state board of education. Teachers seeking an Early Childhood license, pre-kindergarten through third grade, must successfully completed at least six semester hours, or the equivalent, of coursework in the teaching of reading that includes at least one separate course of at least three semester hours, or the equivalent, in the teaching of phonics in the context of reading, writing, and spelling.
Professional Development: The state board of education shall provide in-service training programs for teachers on the use of phonics as a technique for teaching reading in kindergarten through third grade.
|Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3319.24;
Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3301.07
|Oklahoma||Teacher preparation: Teacher candidates must know, understand and use knowledge of the relationship between oral language and literacy as well as know and apply strategies and instructional approaches to support reading comprehension.
Professional Development: The State Board of Education must develop, offer, and administer professional development institutes to train elementary school teachers in reading education, subject to the availability of funds. Grant Program: Grants are available for schools that teach K-3, the grant program supports K-3 teachers, instructional leaders, and principals through a five-day professional development institute in the instruction of reading. Programs also provide schools with a three-day follow-up professional development institute in elementary school reading. Schools receiving the grant received continued support for teacher development at their schools, including four days of professional development for principals and literacy resource specialists, and six days of on-site visits by a program consultant.
|Okla. Admin. Code 210:20-9-172;
Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 70, § 6-200
|Oregon||Teacher preparation: The Teacher Standards and Practices Commission must establish standards for teacher preparation program that require approved educator training programs to demonstrate that candidates receive training in how to provide instruction that enables student to meet or exceed third-grade reading standards.||Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 342.147|
|Pennsylvania||Professional Development: Each school's Read to Succeed Program grant application must include a professional development plan.||24 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 15-1503-B|
|Rhode Island||Professional Development: Schools that enroll students in kindergarten through third grade must invest funds from the professional development investment fund in professional development that will use scientific research based reading instruction to improve student reading performance.||16 R.I. Gen. Laws Ann. § 16-7.1-10|
|South Carolina||Teacher preparation: All pre-service teacher education programs including MAT degree programs must require all candidates seeking certification at the early childhood or elementary level to complete a twelve credit hour sequence in literacy that includes a school-based practicum and ensures that candidates grasp the theory, research, and practices that support and guide the teaching of reading, specifically developing skills in diagnosing a child's reading problems and are capable of providing an effective intervention. The Read to Succeed Office must guide and support districts and collaborate with university teacher training programs to increase reading proficiency through offering courses in reading and writing and working collaboratively with higher education institutions to offer courses in reading and writing.
Professional Development: Reading/literacy coaches are required to be employed at each elementary school with the purpose of providing ongoing professional development to teachers based on an analysis of student assessments. Early learning and elementary education certified classroom teachers are required to earn the literacy teacher add-on endorsement within ten years of their most recent certification by taking at least two courses or six credit hours every five years, or the equivalent professional development hours as determined by the South Carolina Read to Succeed Office. The State Reading Proficiency Plan must include professional development to increase teacher reading expertise and reading expertise and literacy leadership of principals and assistant principals.
|S.C. Code Ann. § 59-155-180;
S.C. Code Ann. § 59-155-110;
S.C. Code Ann. § 59-155-130;
S.C. Code Ann. § 59-155-140
|South Dakota||No requirements specified in statute, however, professional development opportunities may be provided for teachers and other school staff to enable them to deliver scientifically-based literacy instruction.Statute requires teacher candidates demonstrate content knowledge in language arts and literacy among other subjects.||S.D. Codified Laws § 13-37-55;
S.D. Admin. R. 24:53:07:02
|Tennessee||Not specified in statute, rules, or regulation.|
|Texas||Teacher preparation: Candidates seeking initial certification must take courses in reading instruction.
Professional Development: Professional development is not required. Teacher Literacy Achievement Academies are provided to eligible teachers who provide reading instruction in K-3.
|19 Tex. Admin. Code § 228.30;
Tex. Educ. Code Ann. § 21.4552
|Utah||Teacher preparation: License candidates who will teach core subjects in an elementary school must pass a state test demonstrating their knowledge and teaching skills in range of subjects including reading.||Utah Code Ann. § 53A-6-104.5;
Utah Admin. Code r. R277-500-3
|Vermont||Teacher preparation: Early childhood teachers must understand content knowledge in academic disciplines including language arts and literacy.||7-1 Vt. Code R. § 13:5440-36|
|Virginia||Teacher preparation: Early/primary education teaching endorsements require to complete 12 semester hours in composition, oral communication, and lterature. Early/primary education teaching endorsements required to possess knowledge of typical language development, components and sequence of literacy development, and the connection between language development and literacy. Knowledge and skills in specific methods by which adults elicit and foster the components of language development must be included in the candidates coursework. Elementary education endorsement (preK-6) must graduate with a major in indterdisplinary studies focusing on a range of subjects including English or major in a core subject area such as English. Elementary education endorsement candidates must have an understanding of the content, knowledge, skills, and processes for teaching the Virginia Standards of Learning for English including: oral language (speaking and listening), reading, writing, and literature, and how these standards provide the core for teaching English in grades preK-6.||8 Va. Admin. Code 20-542-80;
8 Va. Admin. Code 20-542-80;
8 Va. Admin. Code 20-542-110
|Washington||Teacher Preparation (does not specifically relate to K-3): Candidates for Teacher Residency Certification must be able to apply differentiated instruction, including theories of language aquisition, stages of language, and academic language development across content aresas, including reading.
Professional Development: Opportunities for development in reading instruction and early literacy for teachers of kindergarten through fourth grade students made available, subject to funds appropriated. The Primary Grade Reading Grant Program provides resources to teachers to build their skills in using teaching methods to assist students in reading.
|Wash. Admin. Code 181-78A-270;
Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 28A.415.400;
Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 28A.300.330
|West Virginia||Teacher preparation: Elementary teacher preparation programs require teacher canidates to take a minimum of 9 credit hours of reading instruction that focuses on the five essential components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) as well as how to assess student's reading ability and how to identify and correct reading difficulties. Reading education must also be taken in combination with a general education specialization.||W. Va. Code R. 126-114-6.3.d.1;
W. Va. Code R. 126-114-10.3.b
|Wisconsin||Teacher preparation: License requirements for teachers of language arts or reading in pre-k-6 include instruction in reading and language arts, including phonics.||Wis. Stat. Ann. § 118.19|
|Wyoming||Not specified in statute, rules, or regulation.|